Three key elements were analysed in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia as a basis for strengthening the capacity of staff and structures related to health, migration and border management: public health concerns linked to migration, health needs and rights of migrants and the occupational health of staff.
This IOM project was implemented through an in-depth situation analysis as well as the development of training modules and public health guidelines.
Findings indicate a paucity of existing data, gaps in the health care for migrants and few existing tools for border officials and health professionals. Sets of training modules were developed for each of these groups, including common modules on migration and the right to health and intercultural communication, as well as targeted health modules. The guidelines promote good practices in the context of border management and detention.
The EU is working towards a common immigration policy and integrated border management; however, a harmonized approach to migration and health is still lacking. Further research and piloting of the developed materials is needed to fully establish an adaptable, common toolkit.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Association for Prevention of Torture (APT) (2004) Monitoring places of detention: a practical guide. APT, Geneva
Council of Europe (1993) Recommendation No. R (93) of the Committee of Ministers to Member States concerning prison and priminological aspects of the control of transmissible diseases including AIDS and related health problems in prison. https://wcd.coe.int/com.instranet.InstraServlet?command=com.instranet.CmdBlobGet&InstranetImage=577651&SecMode=1&DocId=611564&Usage=2 Last accessed 28/10/09
Council of Europe (1998) Recommendation No R (98)7 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States concerning the Ethical and Organization Aspects of Health Care in Prisons. http://www.coe.int/t/e/legal_affairs/legal_cooperation/prisons_and_alternatives/legal_instruments/Rec.R(98)7%20.asp. Accessed 28/10/09
Council of Europe (2006) Recommendation Rec(2006)2 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the European Prison Rules. https://wcd.coe.int/viewDoc.jsp?id=955747. Accessed 28/10/09
Council of Europe (2009) The CPT standards––“substantive” sections of the CPT’s General reports. European committee for the prevention of torture and inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment (CPT). http://www.cpt.coe.int/en/documents/eng-standards.pdf. Accessed 01/05/10
Council of Europe (2010) Resolution of the parliamentary assembly on detention of asylum seekers and irregular migrants in Europe. http://assembly.coe.int/Mainf.asp?link=/Documents/AdoptedText/ta10/ERES1707.htm. Accessed 28/10/10
Council of the European Union (2007) Employment, social policy, health and consumer affairs council meeting on 5 and 6 December. Health and Migration in the EU––Policy Debate/Adoption of Council Conclusions. 15609/07. Brussels
Council of the European Union (2010) Employment, social policy, health and consumer affairs council meeting on 8 June. Council conclusions on equity and health in all policies: solidarity in health, Brussels
European Commission (EC) (1989) Council Directive 89/654/EEC of 30 November 1989 concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for the workplace. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Notice.do?mode=dbl&lang=en&ihmlang=en&lng1=en,fr&lng2=bg,cs,da,de,el,en,es,et,fi,fr,hu,it,lt,lv,mt,nl,pl,pt,ro,sk,sl,sv,&val=451152:cs&page=. Accessed 28/10/09
European Commission (EC) (1989) Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31989L0391:en:HTML. Accessed 28/10/09
European Commission (EC) (2003) Council directive on laying down the minimum standards for the reception of asylum seekers. Official journal of the European Union 2003/9/EC[L 031] http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:031:0018:0025:EN:PDF. Accessed 01/05/2010
European Commission (EC) (2009) Communication from the commission to the European Parliament, the council, the European economic and social committee, and the committee of the regions on solidarity in health: reducing health inequalities in the EU. COM(2009)567 final. Brussels
European Parliament (EP) (2007) The conditions in centres for third country national (detention camps, open centres as well as transit centres and transit zones) with a particular focus on provisions and facilities for persons with special needs in the 25 eu member states. IP/C/LIBE/IC/2006-181. STEPS consulting social on behalf of the European parliament committee on civil liberties, justice and home affairs
Goldberg (1978) General health questionnaire. 12 Item Version
Goode T (2000) Cultural competency self-assessment toolkit
International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF) (2006a) Places of Detention in Poland. (Report from the visit of the delegation of human rights NGOs to places of detention Poland on 24–26 October 2005) IHF, Vienna
International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHF) (2006b) Places of Detention in Hungary. (Report from the visit of the delegation of human rights NGOs to places of detention in Hungary on 11 and 12 May 2005) IHF, Vienna
International Labor Organization (ILO) (2006) Convention concerning the promotional framework for occupational safety and health
International Organization for Migration (IOM) (2004) A set of minimum standards: the mental health aspects of trafficking in human beings. IOM, Budapest
International Organization for Migration (IOM) (2008) Exchange of information and best practices on first reception, protection and treatment of unaccompanied minors: manual of best practices and recommendations. IOM, Brussels
International Organization for Migration (IOM) (2010) Increasing Public Health Safety Alongside the New Eastern European Border: an overview of findings from the situation analysis. IOM, Brussels
Jesuit Refugee Service Europe (JRS) (2007) Civil Society Report on Administrative Detention of Asylum Seekers and Illegally Staying Third Country Nationals in the 10 New Member States of the European Union. JRS, Valletta
Jesuit Refugee Service Europe (JRS) (2010) Becoming Vulnerable in Detention: civil society report on the detention of vulnerable asylum seekers and irregular migrants in the European Union. JRS, Brussels
Kindler M, Matejko E (2008) Gateways to Europe: checkpoints on the eu external land border. Stefan Batory Foundation, Warsaw
Médecins Sans Frontières MSF (1997) Refugee health: an approach to emergency situations. Macmillan, London
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) (2009) “Not criminals” Médecins Sans Frontières exposes conditions for undocumented migrants and asylum seekers in Maltese detention centres. MSF, Valletta
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) (2005) Report of the United Nations special rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health
Pace P (2007) Migration and the right to health: a review of European community law and council of Europe instruments. International Migration Law No 12. IOM, Geneva
Pace P (2009) Migration and the right to health: a review of international law. International Migration Law No 19. IOM, Geneva
UN (1988) Body of principles for the protection of all persons under any form of detention or imprisonment. 7th Plenary Meeting. A/RES/43/173. General Assembly of the United Nations
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2008) Handbook for prison managers and policymakers on women and imprisonment. criminal justice handbook series. United Nations Publication. UNODC, New York
University of Athens Medical School, IOM (2005) Integrated methodological framework of the monitoring and assessment tool and questionnaires. UAMS, Athens
U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (2006) Sanitation and hygiene standards for establishing, operating, and inspecting army field detention facilities
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2007) Rescue & restore campaign Tool Kits
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (2008) Operations manual ice performance based national detention standards
World Health Organization (WHO) (2005a) International health regulations
World Health Organization (WHO) (2005b) Mental health policy and service guidance package. Mental health policies and programmes in the workplace. Geneva, Switzerland
World Health Organization (WHO) (2007) Health in prisons: a WHO guide to the essentials prison health. WHO, Copenhagen
World Health Organization (WHO) (2008) Executive board resolution on health of migrants. EB122.R5. WHO, Geneva
This article was developed within the framework of the “Increasing Public Health Safety alongside the New Eastern European Border Line” project (PHBLM) implemented by the International Organization for Migration under Grant Agreement No 2006206 by the European Union’s Health Programme 2006, with the financial support from the Hungarian Ministry of Health and the Regional Ministry of Health of Andalusia. Opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission, the Hungarian Ministry of Health, the Regional Ministry of Health of Andalusia, or IOM. The sole responsibility for this publication therefore lies with the authors, and the European Commission, the Hungarian Ministry of Health and IOM are not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Hollings, J., Samuilova, M. & Petrova-Benedict, R. Health, migration and border management: analysis and capacity-building at Europe’s borders. Int J Public Health 57, 363–369 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-011-0319-8
- Migrant health
- Public health
- Occupational health
- European Union
- Border management