Education and depressive symptoms in 22 European countries
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Variations in the association between education and depressive symptoms in 22 European countries are investigated.
Analyses are based on the European Social Survey Round 3 (N = 34,443). Education was coded according to the International Standard Classification of Education. Depressive symptoms are measured by the shortened Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 8).
The results of multiple logistic regressions show that people with low education have elevated risks of experiencing a high score of depressive symptoms. Relatively large inequalities were observed among both sexes for Hungary and Slovenia, small and non-significant inequalities for Austria, Denmark, and Estonia.
The results indicate that educational inequalities in depressive symptoms are a generalized although not invariant phenomenon.
KeywordsEducational inequalities Depressive symptoms Europe International differences
- Huppert FA, Marks N, Clark A, Siegrist J, Stutzer A, Vitterso J et al. (2008) Measuring well-being across Europe: description of the ESS well-being module and preliminary findings. http://www.pse.ens.fr/document/wp200840.pdf
- UNESCO (1997) International Standard Classification of Education, UNESCOGoogle Scholar