Skip to main content

Cross-national time trends in bullying behaviour 1994–2006: findings from Europe and North America



To identify trends over 12 years in the prevalence of bullying and associated victimization among adolescents in North American and European countries.


Cross-sectional self-report surveys were obtained from nationally representative samples of 11–15 year old school children in 21 countries in 1993/94 and in 27 countries in each of 1997/98, 2001/02 and 2005/06. Measures included involvement in bullying as either a perpetrator and/or victim.


Consistent decreases in the prevalence of bullying were reported between 1993/94 to 2005/06 in most countries. Geographic patterns show consistent decreases in bullying in Western European countries and in most Eastern European countries. An increase or no change in prevalence was evident in almost all English speaking countries participating in the study (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Canada, but not in the USA).


Study findings demonstrated a significant decrease in involvement in bullying behaviour in most participating countries. This is encouraging news for policy-makers and practitioners working in the field of bullying prevention.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michal Molcho PhD.

Additional information

Members of the HBSC Bullying Writing Group: Will Pickett (CA), Will Boyce (CA), Wendy Craig (CA), Pernille Due (DK), Bjorn Holstein (DK), Michal Molcho (IE), Yossi Harel (IL), Wilma Vollebergh (NL), Jorn Hetland (NO), Oddrun Samdal (NO), Joanna Mazur (PL), Margarida Gaspar de Matos (PT), Winfried van der Sluijs (GB-SCO), Zuzana Katreniakova (SK), Mary Overpeck (US), Tonja Nansel (US), Jing Wang (US)

Submitted: 04 May 2009; accepted: 04 June 2009

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Molcho, M., Craig, W., Due, P. et al. Cross-national time trends in bullying behaviour 1994–2006: findings from Europe and North America. Int J Public Health 54 (Suppl 2), 225–234 (2009).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Youth Violence
  • Bully Behaviour
  • Bully Victimization
  • Past Couple
  • Chronic Victimization