Molecular approach to the chemical characterization of fish-exuded kairomone: a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study
- 251 Downloads
Diel vertical migration (DVM) bioassay-guided Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy can be a prominent non-destructive and innovative approach for ecological studies. During the characterization of the nature of the fish-exuded kairomone, the peak area results from the spectroscopic analysis of the control, fish-conditioned (F) and temperature incubated fish-conditioned (IF) treatments of the DVM bioassays demonstrated that there was a strong correlation between the alterations of the amine N–H, amide II, amide IV and CH3 asymmetric vibrations, suggesting that both N–H and CH3 molecules may be main components of the fish-exuded kairomone cocktail. The IF treatment, which showed similar results with the control treatment, supported that the kairomone is inactivated by bacterial biodegradation. The seasonal variations in the peak areas of the N–H and CH3 bands suggested that DVM response varied seasonally, where migration response developed quickly in warmer seasons. The peak area of the amine N–H band of the F and IF treatments relative to control conditions can be used as an ideal indicator of the absence or presence and the promptness of migration, at all seasons.
KeywordsFish kairomone Diel vertical migration Infrared spectroscopy Seasonality Bacterial biodegradation
This work was supported by the Environment, Atmosphere, Earth and Marine Sciences group (ÇAYDAG-100Y035) of the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK). The authors thank Pelin Zorlu for carrying out the migration experiments.
- Bozkurt O, Bilgin MD, Severcan F (2007) The effect of diabetes mellitus on rat skeletal extensor digitorum longus muscle tissue: an FTIR study. Spectroscopy 21:151–160Google Scholar
- Dawidowicz P, Loose CJ (1992) Metabolic costs during predator-induced diel vertical migration of Daphnia. Limnol Oceanogr 37:1589–1595Google Scholar
- Dodson SI (1988) The ecological role of chemical stimuli for the zooplankton: predator avoidance behavior in Daphnia. Limnol Oceanogr 33:1431–1439Google Scholar
- Freifelder D (1982) Physical biochemistry: applications of biochemistry and molecular biology. W. H. Freeman and Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Loose CJ, von Elert E, Dawidowicz P (1993) Chemically-induced diel vertical migration in Daphnia—a new bioassay for kairomones exuded by fish. Arch Hydrobiol 126:329–337Google Scholar
- McKelvey LM (1997) Planktivore chemical cues mediate zooplankton diel vertical migration. Ph.D. dissertation, Duke UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Simsek Ozek N, Sara Y, Onur R, Severcan F (2009) Low dose simvastatin induces compositional, structural and dynamical changes on rat skeletal extensor digitorum longus muscle tissue. Biosci Rep (in press). doi: 10.1042/BSR20080150
- Stuart B (1997) Biological applications of infrared spectroscopy. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
- Tollrian R (1994) Fish–kairomone induced morphological changes in Daphnia lumholtzi (Sars). Arch Hydrobiol 130:69–75Google Scholar