The Barrow-in-Furness Earthquake of 15 February 1865: Liquefaction from a Very Small Magnitude Event

Abstract

—High intensity and liquefaction phenomena are usually associated only with relatively large magnitude earthquakes. An earthquake in 1865 in the northwest of England suggests that a sufficiently shallow small event can also produce liquefaction. The effects are well-documented in historical sources and include sand fountaining. Modern investigation is confined to documentary evidence owing to the tidal environment of the area where liquefaction occurred. Analysis shows that the felt area of the earthquake was probably only about 200 km2; however, heavy damage occurred in the village of Rampside and the maximum intensity is assessed at 8. Liquefaction is not uncommon at this intensity, but such a high intensity is not usually produced by such small erathquakes. The magnitude was probably in the range 2.5–3.5 M L .

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Received October 17, 1997, accepted July 7, 1998.

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Musson, R. The Barrow-in-Furness Earthquake of 15 February 1865: Liquefaction from a Very Small Magnitude Event. Pure appl. geophys. 152, 733–745 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1007/s000240050174

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  • Key words: Historical earthquakes, intensity, liquefaction.