Planetary boundary layer parametrization (PBL) is a key factor influencing weather forecast skills. This article provides a quantitative illustration of the segregation of forecast errors and their growth arising from different PBLs of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The systematic (root mean square) components of forecast errors arising from four different PBLs of the WRF over the state of Odisha (India) and its surrounding regions are elucidated. Error characterizations are carried out for the forecast lead time up to 96 h (day-4) for two contrasting monsoon seasons, i.e., 2013 (normal) and 2014 (deficit). A total of 1112 simulations are carried out for each initial condition, i.e., May 15 to September 29 for both monsoon seasons using four PBL schemes, i.e., Yonsei University (YSU), Mellor–Yamada–Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN), Asymmetric Convective Model version 2 (ACM2), and medium-range forecast (MRF). The overall results suggest the errors in thermodynamical variables (i.e., temperature and relative humidity) are large compared to the dynamical variable (i.e., wind). For the normal monsoon year (i.e., 2013), the MRF and MYNN exhibit the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) of temperature compared to ACM2 and YSU, whereas MRF (MYNN) shows the lowest (highest) error growth at 24–48 h (72–96 h). The deficit year (2014) has a higher temperature error compared to that of the normal monsoon year (2013), which might be due to frequent monsoon break periods. The spatial distribution of wind exhibits the lowest systematic error for MRF with lead time up to 48 h. The subsequent decrease (increase) of convergence (divergence) of error flux over northern Odisha and increase (decrease) of the same over southern Odisha suggests that the error propagation occurs from north to south. In general, both the convergence and divergence of error energy are found to be weak in MRF and MYNN, attributable to the lower error growth rate and hence the smaller systematic errors compared to ACM2 and YSU for both these monsoon seasons. It is also found that the systematic component of the linear (nonlinear) error growth rate is contributed by the physics (dynamics) components of the model. These findings will provide guidance for the model community and operational agencies to make an optimal choice of PBL parameterizations, particularly for the monsoon forecast.
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The authors would like to thank the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology Pune under the Ministry of Earth System Sciences, Govt. of India, and Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar for providing us all the research facilities and helpful assistance required for this purpose. We also thankfully acknowledge the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, and the Scientific and Engineering Research Board (SERB) for providing financial aid in terms of research grants (RP-063, RP-132, RP-193) for carrying out this work. The authors thankfully acknowledge the visualization tool GrADS (Grid Analysis and Display System), which is a free software by the Linux community, the National Centre for Environment Prediction (NCEP-FNL), and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) for providing us all those data sets required for the initialization and validation of the WRF model.
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Hazra, V., Pattnaik, S., De, S. et al. Segregation of Forecast Errors in the Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization Over the State of Odisha and Neighboring Regions in India During Summer Monsoon Season. Pure Appl. Geophys. 178, 583–601 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-020-02651-5
- planetary boundary layer
- systematic error
- Indian summer monsoon