Effective Active and Passive Seismics for the Characterization of Urban and Remote Areas: Four Channels for Seven Objective Functions
- 103 Downloads
An efficient system for the joint acquisition and analysis of multi-component active and passive seismic data is presented. It is shown how, in spite of the limited field equipment (the system requires just a 4-channel seismograph, one 3-component and four vertical-component geophones), it is nevertheless possible to define up to seven different (but mutually related and complementary) objects used to constrain a multi-objective joint inversion capable of providing a robust subsurface shear-wave velocity (VS) profile for both geotechnical and seismic-hazard studies. The presented approach relies on acquisition techniques that require simple and straightforward field procedures useful in particular, but not solely, in the characterization of urban and remote areas where, due to logistical problems, standard acquisition procedures cannot be easily applied. Active data recorded by a single 3-component geophone are processed so to define up to five objective functions: the group-velocity spectra of the three components, the radial-to-vertical spectral ratio and the Rayleigh-wave particle motion frequency curve. Passive data are used to compute two further objects: the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio and the phase-velocity dispersion curve obtained via miniature array analysis of microtremors. These seven objects are jointly inverted by means of a multi-objective inversion procedure based on the Pareto criterion. Performances are assessed through a comprehensive field dataset acquired in an urban area of NW-Italy. The consistency of the overall procedure is assessed by comparing the results with the analyses accomplished by considering classical multi-channel active and passive data and methodologies (multi-component MASW, multichannel analysis of surface waves and ESAC, extended spatial auto-correlation).
KeywordsSurface wave dispersion Rayleigh waves Love waves joint inversion of seismic data holistic analysis of surface waves (HS) miniature array analysis of microtremors (MAAM) Rayleigh-wave particle motion (RPM) radial-to-vertical spectral ratio (RVSR) horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) ESAC (extended spatial auto-correlation) MASW (multichannel analysis of surface waves) Vs30
This work was partly supported by the Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics (Czech Academy of Sciences—Prague, CZ) in the framework of the long-term conceptual development project RVO 67985891 (Institute grant for the “Extreme Seismics” project). The author is also grateful to Prof. Herrmann for his help in clarifying the sign convention adopted by his Computer Programs in Seismology. The paper significantly benefitted from the comments and suggestions of two anonymous reviewers whose comments were highly appreciated.
- Abbate, E., Fanucci, F., Benvenuti, M., Bruni, P., Cipriani, N., Falorni, P., Fazzuoli, M., Morelli, D., Pandeli, E., Papini, M., Sagri, M., Reale, V., & Vannucchi, P. (2004). Carta Geologica d’Italia—F° 248—La Spezia. Regione Liguria. http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/Media/carg/note_illustrative/248_LaSpezia.pdf. Accessed June 2018 (extended English abstract).
- American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). (2010). Minimum design loads for buildings and other structure, ASCE7-05, p 608. ISBN:0784410852.Google Scholar
- Arai, H. & Tokimatsu, K. (2000). Effects of Rayleigh and Love waves on icrotremor H/V spectra. In: Proceedings of 12th world conference of earthquake engineering, Auckland, New Zealand, Paper no. 2232.Google Scholar
- Asten, M.W., Dhu, T., & Lam, N. (2004). Optimised array design for microtremor array studies applied to site classification; comparison of results with SCPT Logs. In Proceedings of the 13th world conference on earthquake engineering, Vancouver, paper 2903.Google Scholar
- Bhattacharya, S. N. (1983). Higher order accuracy in multiple filter technique. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 73, 1395–1406.Google Scholar
- CEN (Comité Européen de Normalisation). (2004). EN 1998-5:2004b: Eurocode 8: Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance—Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings. Brussels, Belgium: CEN.Google Scholar
- Dal Moro, G. (2014). Surface wave analysis for near surface applications (p. 252). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Dal Moro, G., Moustafa, S.R., & Al-Arifi, N. (2015b). Efficient acquisition and holistic analysis of Rayleigh waves. In Proceedings of the near-surface EAGE 2015 (Turin—Italy).Google Scholar
- Dal Moro, G., Moustafa, S. R., & Al-Arifi, N. (2017b). Improved holistic analysis of rayleigh waves for single- and multi-offset data: Joint inversion of rayleigh-wave particle motion and vertical- and radial-component velocity spectra. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 175, 67–88. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-017-1694-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dziewonski, A., Bloch, S., & Landisman, N. (1969). A technique for the analysis of transient seismic signals. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 59, 427–444.Google Scholar
- Fasan, M., Magrin, A., Amadio, C., Romanelli, F., Vaccari, F., & Panza, G. F. (2016). A seismological and engineering perspective on the 2016 Central Italy earthquakes. International Journal of Earthquake and Impact Engineering, 1, 395–420. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEIE.2016.10004076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Herrmann, R.B. (2018). Computer programs in seismology. Open files. http://www.eas.slu.edu/eqc/eqccps.html. Accessed Aug 2018.
- Ikeda, T., Asten, M.W., & Matsuoka, T. (2013). Joint inversion of spatial autocorrelation curves with HVSR for site characterization in Newcastle, Australia: Extended abstracts of the 23rd ASEG conference and exhibition. http://www.publish.csiro.au/ex/pdf/ASEG2013ab315. Accessed Aug 2018.
- International Building Code (IBC). (2009). International Building Code. ISBN:580017258.Google Scholar
- International Code Council (ICC). (2009). International Code Council. ISBN:978-1-58001-727-5.Google Scholar
- Kacoaglu, A. H., & Long, L. T. (1993). A review of time-frequency analysis techniques for estimation of group velocities. Seismological Research Letters, 64, 157–167.Google Scholar
- Nakamura, Y. (1989). A method for dynamic characteristic estimation of subsurface using microtremor on the ground surface. QR Railway Technique Research Institute, 30(1), 25–33.Google Scholar
- Natale, M., Nunziata, C., & Panza, G.F. (2004). FTAN method for the detailed definition of V S in urban areas. In 13th World conference on earthquake engineering (p. 2694). Vancouver, B.C., Canada.Google Scholar
- Sawaragi, Y., Nakayama, H., & Tamino, T. (1985). Theory of multiobjective optimization (p. 296). Orlando, Florida: Academic.Google Scholar
- Scales, J.A., Smith, M.L., & Treitel, S. (2001). Introductory geophysical inverse theory (p. 193). Open file, Samizdat Press. http://www.e-booksdirectory.com/details.php?ebook=9154. Accessed 21 Nov 2018.
- Zealand. (2004). NZS 1170.5:2004 Structural design actions part 5: Earthquake actions-New Zealand. New Zealand.Google Scholar