We analyze atmospheric conditions conducive for a meteotsunami event that occurred in the Adriatic on 25 June 2014. This was the most intensive of a series of meteotsunami events which occurred in the Mediterranean and Black Seas during 23–27 June 2014 period. Considerable sea-level oscillations were observed in several eastern Adriatic harbors with a maximum wave height of around 3 m and period of approximately 20 min observed in Vela Luka harbor, Korčula Island, Croatia. Observational analysis of the event utilizes available in situ and remote sensing measurements. For a more detailed insight into the structure of the atmosphere we reproduced the event with the WRF model configured at a sub-kilometer grid spacing. Observational and simulated data both demonstrate that sea-level oscillations in Vela Luka harbor were caused by rapid air–pressure perturbations with amplitudes of up to 4 hPa and a maximal rate of air pressure change above 2 hPa/5 min. Around the time pressure perturbations affected the area, pressure distribution was affected by both convection and internal gravity waves, with both wave-CISK and wave duct promoting maintenance of pressure perturbations. This makes the 2014 Adriatic event the first known meteotsunami event in the Mediterranean and Black Seas during which both of these maintenance mechanisms acted jointly. Finally, simulations performed in this event represented meteotsunami-related pressure perturbations at the adequate time and location, which is a step forward in the ability of atmospheric models to assist early warning meteotsunami systems for the Mediterranean and the Black Seas.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Belušić, D., Grisogono, B., & Klaić, Z. B. (2007). Atmospheric origin of the devastating coupled air–sea event in the east Adriatic. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, D17111. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006jd008204.
Belušić, D., & Strelec-Mahović, N. (2009). Detecting and following atmospheric disturbances with a potential to generate meteotsunamis in the Adriatic. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 34, 918–927.
Dudhia, J. (1989). Numerical study of convection observed during the winter monsoon experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 46, 3077–3107.
Dudhia, J. (1996). A multi-layer soil temperature model for MM5. The sixth PSU/NCAR mesoscale model Users’ Workshop, pp. 22–24.
Horvath, K., Koracin, D., Vellore, R. K., Jiang, J., & Belu, R. (2012). Sub-kilometer dynamical downscaling of near-surface winds in complex terrain using WRF and MM5 mesoscale models. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, D11111. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012jd017432.
Horvath, K., & Vilibić, I. (2014). Atmospheric mesoscale conditions during the Boothbay meteotsunami: A numerical sensitivity study using a high-resolution mesoscale model. Natural Hazards, 74, 55–74. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-014-1055-1.
Janjić, Z. I. (1994). The step-mountain eta coordinate model: Further developments of the convection, viscous sublayer, and turbulence closure schemes. Monthly Weather Review, 122, 927–945.
Kain, J. S. (2004). The Kain–Fritsch convective parameterization: An update. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 43, 170–181.
Kehler-Poljak, G., Telišman Prtenjak, M., Kvakić, M., Šariri, K., & Večenaj, Ž. (2017). Interaction of Sea breeze and deep convection over the Northeastern Adriatic coast: An analysis of sensitivity experiments using a high-resolution mesoscale model. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 174, 4197–4224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-017-1607-x.
Lin, Y.-L. (2007). Mesoscale dynamics (p. 630). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lindzen, R. S. (1974). Wave-CISK in the tropics. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 31, 156–179.
Lindzen, R. S., & Tung, K. K. (1976). Banded convective activity and ducted gravity waves. Monthly Weather Review, 104, 1602–1617.
Mlawer, E. J., Taubmanm, S. J., Brown, P. D., Iacono, M. J., & Clough, S. A. (1997). Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 16663–16682.
Monserrat, S., Vilibić, I., & Rabinovich, A. B. (2006). Meteotsunamis: Atmospherically induced destructive ocean waves in the tsunami frequency band. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 6, 1035–1051.
Morrison, H., Curry, J. A., & Khvorostyanov, V. I. (2005). A new double-moment microphysics parameterization for application in cloud and climate models, Part I: Description. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 62, 1665–1677.
Orlić, M. (2015). The first attempt at cataloguing tsunami-like waves of meteorological origin in Croatian coastal waters. Acta Adriatica, 56, 83–96.
Orlić, M., Belušić, D., Janeković, I., & Pasarić, M. (2010). Fresh evidence relating the great Adriatic surge of 21 June 1978 to mesoscale atmospheric forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, C06011. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JC005777.
Pawlowicz, R., Beardsley, B., Lentz, S., (2002). Classical tidal harmonic analysis including error estimates in MATLAB using T_TIDE. Computers & Geosciences, 28, 929–937.
Renault, L., Vizoso, G., Jansa, A., Wilkin, J., & Tintoré, J. (2011). Toward the predictability of meteotsunamis in the Balearic Sea using regional nested atmosphere and ocean models. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L10601. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047361.
Šepić, J., Međugorac, I., Janeković, I., Dunić, N., & Vilibić, I. (2016). Multi-meteotsunami event in the Adriatic Sea generated by atmospheric disturbances of 25–26 June 2014. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 173(12), 4117–4138. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-016-1249-4.
Šepić, J., Rabinovich, A. B., & Sytov, V. N. (2018a). Odessa tsunami of 27 June 2014: Observations and numerical modelling. Pure and Applied Geophysics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-017-1729-1.
Šepić, J., Vilibić, I., & Belušić, D. (2009). The source of the 2007 Ist meteotsunami (Adriatic Sea). Journal of Geophysical Research. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC005092.
Šepić, J., Vilibić, I., Rabinovich, A. B., & Monserrat, S. (2015). Widespread tsunami-like waves of 23–27 June in the Mediterranean and Black Seas generated by high-altitude atmospheric forcing. Scientific Reports, 5, 11682. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep11682.
Šepić, J., Vilibić, I., Rabinovich, A. B., & Tinti, S. (2018b). Meteotsunami (“marrobbio”) of 25–26 June on the southwestern coast of Sicily. Pure and Applied Geophysics (submitted).
Skamarock, W. C., Klemp, J. B., Dudhia, J., Gill, D. O., Barker, D. M., Duda, M. G., et al. (2008). A description of the advanced research WRF version 3, NCAR/TN-475?STR. Description of the WRF model. Boulder: NCAR.
Tanaka, K. (2010). Atmospheric pressure-wave bands around a cold front resulted in a meteotsunami in the East China Sea in February 2009. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 10, 2599–2610.
Thomson, R. E., & Emery, W. J. (2014). Data analysis methods in physical oceanography (3rd ed., p. 716p). New York: Elsevier Science.
Vilibić, I. (2008). Numerical simulations of the Proudman resonance. Continental Shelf Research, 28, 574–581.
Vilibić, I., Domijan, N., Orlić, M., Leder, N., & Pasarić, M. (2004). Resonant coupling of a traveling air pressure disturbance with the east Adriatic coastal waters. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, C10001. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002279.
Vilibić, I., Horvath, K., StrelecMahovic, N., Monserrat, S., Marcos, M., Amores, A., et al. (2014). Atmospheric processes responsible for generation of the 2008 Boothbay meteotsunami. Natural Hazards, 74, 25–53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-0811-y.
We would like to thank all organisations that kindly provided us the data used in this study: European Centre for Middle-range Weather Forecast, Reading (http://www.ecmwf.int); European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (http://www.eumetsat.int); Hydrographic Institute of the Republic of Croatia, Split; Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Split, Croatia; and Meteorological and Hydrological Service, Zagreb, Croatia. The work of KH and JS has been supported by the Croatian Science Foundation under the project MESSI (UKF Grant no. 25/15). MTP thanks the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) project VITCLIC (PKP-2016-06-2975) which is funded by the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund under the Government Program (Ministry of Environment and Energy and Ministry of Science and Education) for the Promotion of Research and Development Activities in the Field of Climate Change for the period 2015–2016.
About this article
Cite this article
Horvath, K., Šepić, J. & Prtenjak, M.T. Atmospheric Forcing Conducive for the Adriatic 25 June 2014 Meteotsunami Event. Pure Appl. Geophys. 175, 3817–3837 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-018-1902-1
- Adriatic Sea
- wave duct