Fog Occurrence and Associated Meteorological Factors Over Kempegowda International Airport, India

  • Saumya G. Kutty
  • G. Agnihotri
  • A. P. DimriEmail author
  • I. Gultepe


The increase in fog frequency over the past few decades is a major cause of concern for the aviation and transportation sectors. Accurate forecasting of the spatio-temporal extent of fog is crucial for minimizing socioeconomic losses. The present study attempts to characterize the fog frequency and associated meteorological factors over Kempegowda International Airport, Bengaluru (KIAB), in Karnataka, India. Maximum fog occurrence is observed during the month of December, followed by January. The time of onset of fog lies usually between 1800 and 0300 UTC. No fog is formed between 0400 and 1700 UTC indicating the role of radiation fog. The predominant wind direction during fog events is east or southeasterly. There is significant positive correlation between the fog frequency and both the northeast monsoon, October–November (0.72), as well as December–January–February (DJF) rainfall (0.80). Soil moisture conditions during the DJF period also play a key role in fog occurrence and its climatology, which is evident from the correlation coefficient of order 0.68. These suggest that further research is needed for understanding the extent of impact on aviation at KIAB.


Fog radiative cooling visibility variability forecast 



The first author wishes to acknowledge the University Grants Commission funding for Junior Research Fellowship and Jawaharlal Nehru University for providing the requisite facilities and assistance as part of the UPOE scheme.

Supplementary material

24_2018_1882_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1168 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saumya G. Kutty
    • 1
  • G. Agnihotri
    • 2
  • A. P. Dimri
    • 1
    Email author
  • I. Gultepe
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Flood Meteorological Office, India Meteorological DepartmentBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Cloud Physics and Severe Weather Research SectionMeteorological Research Division, Environment CanadaTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Faculty of EngineeringUOITOshawaCanada

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