In this paper, we present a novel technique for the objective detection of the geomorphological effects of flooding in riverbeds and floodplains using imagery acquired by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, also known as drones) equipped with an panchromatic camera. The proposed method is based on the fusion of the two key data products of UAV photogrammetry, the digital elevation model (DEM), and the orthoimage, as well as derived qualitative information, which together serve as the basis for object-based segmentation and the supervised classification of fluvial forms. The orthoimage is used to calculate textural features, enabling detection of the structural properties of the image area and supporting the differentiation of features with similar spectral responses but different surface structures. The DEM is used to derive a flood depth model and the terrain ruggedness index, supporting the detection of bank erosion. All the newly derived information layers are merged with the orthoimage to form a multi-band data set, which is used for object-based segmentation and the supervised classification of key fluvial forms resulting from flooding, i.e., fresh and old gravel accumulations, sand accumulations, and bank erosion. The method was tested on the effects of a snowmelt flood that occurred in December 2015 in a montane stream in the Sumava Mountains, Czech Republic, Central Europe. A multi-rotor UAV was used to collect images of a 1-km-long and 200-m-wide stretch of meandering stream with fresh traces of fluvial activity. The performed segmentation and classification proved that the fusion of 2D and 3D data with the derived qualitative layers significantly enhanced the reliability of the fluvial form detection process. The assessment accuracy for all of the detected classes exceeded 90%. The proposed technique proved its potential for application in rapid mapping and detection of the geomorphological effects of flooding.
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The research was supported by the EU COST Action 1306 project LD15130 “Impact of landscape disturbance on the stream and basin connectivity” and Czech Science Foundation project 13-32133S “Retention potential of headwater areas”.
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Langhammer, J., Vacková, T. Detection and Mapping of the Geomorphic Effects of Flooding Using UAV Photogrammetry. Pure Appl. Geophys. 175, 3223–3245 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-018-1874-1
- structure from motion
- bank erosion
- textural features