Advertisement

Pure and Applied Geophysics

, Volume 175, Issue 3, pp 917–927 | Cite as

Permeability of Granite Including Macro-Fracture Naturally Filled with Fine-Grained Minerals

  • Yoshitaka Nara
  • Masaji Kato
  • Ryuhei Niri
  • Masanori Kohno
  • Toshinori Sato
  • Daisuke Fukuda
  • Tsutomu Sato
  • Manabu Takahashi
Article

Abstract

Information on the permeability of rock is essential for various geoengineering projects, such as geological disposal of radioactive wastes, hydrocarbon extraction, and natural hazard risk mitigation. It is especially important to investigate how fractures and pores influence the physical and transport properties of rock. Infiltration of groundwater through the damage zone fills fractures in granite with fine-grained minerals. However, the permeability of rock possessing a fracture naturally filled with fine-grained mineral grains has yet to be investigated. In this study, the permeabilities of granite samples, including a macro-fracture filled with clay and a mineral vein, are investigated. The permeability of granite with a fine-grained mineral vein agrees well with that of the intact sample, whereas the permeability of granite possessing a macro-fracture filled with clay is lower than that of the macro-fractured sample. The decrease in the permeability is due to the filling of fine-grained minerals and clay in the macro-fracture. It is concluded that the permeability of granite increases due to the existence of the fractures, but decreases upon filling them with fine-grained minerals.

Keywords

Permeability granite fracture clay mineral vein 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by a grant from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

References

  1. Abe, S. (2016). Comparison of discrete element simulations to theoretical predictions of the elastic moduli of damaged rocks. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 88, 265–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amadei, B., & Illangasekare, T. (1994). A mathematical model for flow and solute transport in non-homogeneous rock fractures. International Journal of Rock Mechanics Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 31, 719–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bear, J. (1988). Dynamics of fluids in porous media. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  4. Benson, P. M., Meredith, P. G., & Schubnel, A. (2006a). Role of void space geometry in permeability evolution in crustal rocks at elevated pressure. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, B12203.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JB004309.Google Scholar
  5. Benson, P., Schubnel, A., Vinciguerra, S., Trovato, C., Meredith, P., & Young, R. P. (2006b). Modeling the permeability evolution of microcracked rocks from elastic wave velocity inversion at elevated isotropic pressure. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, B04202.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003710.Google Scholar
  6. Brace, W. F. (1965). Some new measurements of linear compressibility of rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research, 70, 391–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brace, W. F., Walsh, J. B., & Frangos, W. T. (1968). Permeability of granite under high pressure. Journal of Geophysical Research, 73, 2225–2236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chaki, S., Takarli, M., & Agbodjan, W. P. (2008). Influence of thermal damage on physical properties of a granite rock: porosity, permeability and ultrasonic wave evolutions. Construction and Building Materials, 22, 1456–1461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Darot, M., Gueguen, Y., & Baratin, M. (1992). Permeability of thermally cracked granite. Geophysical Research Letters, 19, 869–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. David, C. (1993). Geometry of flow paths for fluid transport in rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, 12267–12278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Esaki, T., Zhang, M., Takeshita, A., & Mitani, Y. (1996). Rigorous theoretical analysis of a flow pump permeability test. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 19, 241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fortin, J., Stanchits, S., Vinciguerra, S., & Guèguen, Y. (2011). Influence of thermal and mechanical cracks on permeability and elastic wave velocities in a basalt from Mt. Etna volcano subjected to elevated pressure. Tectonophysics, 503, 60–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Francisca, F., Yun, T. S., Ruppel, C., & Santamarina, J. C. (2005). Geophysical and geotechnical properties of near-seafloor sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico gas hydrate province. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 237, 924–939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fujii, Y., Takemura, T., Takahashi, M., & Lin, W. (2007). Surface features of uniaxial tensile fractures and their relation to rock anisotropy in Inada granite. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 44, 98–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Griffiths, L., Heap, M. J., Xu, T., Chen, C., & Baud, P. (2017). The influence of pore geometry and orientation on the strength and stiffness of porous rock. Journal of Structural Geology, 96, 149–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gueguen, Y., Chelidze, T., & Le Ravalec, M. (1997). Microstructures, percolation thresholds, and rock physical properties. Tectonophysics, 279, 23–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gueguen, Y., & Dienes, J. (1989). Transport properties of rocks from statistics and percolation. Mathematical Geology, 21, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hashiba, K., & Fukui, K. (2016). Time-dependent behaviors of granite: loading-rate dependence, creep, and relaxation. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 49, 2569–2580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hazzard, J. F., Young, R. P., & Maxwell, S. C. (2000). Micromechanical modelling of cracking and failure in brittle rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 16683–16697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heap, M. J., Baud, P., Reuschlé, T., & Meredith, P. G. (2014). Stylolites in limestones: barriers to fluid flow? Geology, 42, 51–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hsieh, P. A., Tracy, J. V., Bredehoeft, J. D., & Silliman, S. E. (1981). A transient laboratory method for determining the hydraulic properties of ‘tight’ rocks–I. Theory. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 18, 245–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ishibashi, M., Yoshida, H., Sasao, E., & Yuguchi, T. (2016). Long term behavior of hydrogeological structures associated with faulting: an example from the deep crystalline rock in the Mizunami URL, Central Japan. Engineering Geology, 208, 114–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Iwatsuki, T., Furue, R., Mie, H., Ioka, S., & Mizuno, T. (2005). Hydrochemical baseline condition of groundwater at the Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU). Applied Geochemistry, 20, 2283–2302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Koike, K., Kubo, T., Liu, C., Masoud, A., Amano, K., Kurihara, A., et al. (2015). 3D geostatistical modelling of fracture system in a granitic massif to characterize hydraulic properties and fracture distribution. Tectonophysics, 660, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kranz, R. L., Frankel, A. D., Engelder, T., & Scholz, C. H. (1979). The permeability of whole and jointed Barre granite. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 16, 225–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lanaro, F., Sato, T., & Nakama, S. (2009). Depth variability of compressive strength test results of Toki granite from Shobasama and Mizunami construction sites, Japan. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 42, 611–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Morin, R. H., & Olsen, H. W. (1987). Theoretical analysis of the transient pressure response from a constant flow rate hydraulic conductivity test. Water Resources Research, 23, 1461–1470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Morrow, C. A., & Lockner, D. A. (1997). Permeability and porosity of the Illinois UPH 3 drillhole granite and a comparison with other deep drillhole rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 3067–3075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nara, Y. (2015). Effect of anisotropy on the long-term strength of granite. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, 48, 959–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nara, Y., & Kaneko, K. (2006). Sub-critical crack growth in anisotropic rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 43, 437–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nara, Y., Cho, S. H., Yoshizaki, T., Kaneko, K., Sato, T., Nakama, S., et al. (2011a). Estimation of three-dimensional stress distribution and elastic moduli in rock mass of the Tono area. International Journal of the Japanese Committee for Rock Mechanics, 7, 1–9.Google Scholar
  32. Nara, Y., Kato, H., Yoneda, T., & Kaneko, K. (2011b). Determination of three-dimensional microcrack distribution and principal axes for granite using a polyhedral specimen. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 48, 316–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nara, Y., Meredith, P. G., Yoneda, T., & Kaneko, K. (2011c). Influence of macro-fractures and micro-fractures on permeability and elastic wave velocities in basalt at elevated pressure. Tectonophysics, 503, 52–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nara, Y., Morimoto, K., Yoneda, T., Hiroyoshi, N., & Kaneko, K. (2011d). Effects of humidity and temperature on subcritical crack growth in sandstone. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 48, 1130–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nara, Y., Morimoto, K., Hiroyoshi, N., Yoneda, T., Kaneko, K., & Benson, P. M. (2012). Influence of relative humidity on fracture toughness of rock: implications for subcritical crack growth. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 49, 2471–2481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nara, Y., Nakabayashi, R., Maruyama, M., Hiroyoshi, N., Yoneda, Y., & Kaneko, K. (2014). Influences of electrolyte concentration on subcritical crack growth in sandstone in water. Engineering Geology, 179, 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nasseri, M. H. B., Mohanty, B., & Robin, P.-Y. F. (2005). Characterization of microstructures and fracture toughness in five granitic rocks. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 42, 450–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nasseri, M. B. H., Schubnel, A., Benson, P. M., & Young, R. P. (2009). Common evolution of mechanical and transport properties in thermally cracked Westerly granite at elevated hydrostatic pressure. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 166, 927–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nasseri, M. H. B., Schubnel, A., & Young, R. P. (2007). Coupled evolutions of fracture toughness and elastic wave velocities at high crack density in thermally treated Westerly granite. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 44, 601–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Norton, D., & Knapp, R. (1977). Transport phenomena in hydrothermal systems: the nature of porosity. American Journal of Science, 227, 913–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Olsen, H. W. (1966). Darcy’s law in saturated kaolinite. Water Resources Research, 2, 287–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Oron, A. P., & Berkowitz, B. (1998). Flow in rock fractures: the local cubic law assumption reexamined. Water Resources Research, 34, 2811–2825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pratt, H. R., Swolfs, H. S., Brace, W. F., Black, A. D., & Handin, J. W. (1977). Elastic and transport properties of an in situ jointed granite. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 14, 35–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sanada, H., Hikima, R., Tanno, T., Matsui, H., & Sato, T. (2013). Application of differential strain curve analysis to the Toki granite for in situ stress determination at the Mizunami underground research laboratory, Japan. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 59, 50–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sausse, J., Jacquot, E., Fritz, B., Leroy, J., & Lespinasse, M. (2001). Evolution of crack permeability during fluid-rock interaction. Example of the Brèzouard granite (Vosges, France). Tectonophysics, 336, 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schubnel, A., Nishizawa, O., Masuda, K., Lei, X. J., Xue, Z., & Gueguen, Y. (2003). Velocity measurements and crack density determination during wet triaxial experiments on Oshima and Toki granites. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 160, 869–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Suzuki, K., Oda, M., Yamazaki, M., & Kuwahara, T. (1998). Permeability change in granite with crack growth during immersion in hot water. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 35, 907–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Unger, A. J. A., & Mase, C. W. (1993). Numerical study of the hydromechanical behavior of two rough fracture surfaces in contact. Water Resources Research, 29, 2101–2114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vinciguerra, S., Trovato, C., Meredith, P. G., & Benson, P. M. (2005). Relating seismic velocities, thermal cracking and permeability in Mt. Etna and Iceland basalts. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 42, 900–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Walsh, J. B. (1965). The effect of cracks on the compressibility of rock. Journal of Geophysical Research, 70, 381–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Walsh, J. B. (1981). Effect of pore pressure and confining pressure on fracture permeability. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, 18, 429–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang, G., Mitchell, T. M., Meredith, P. G., Nara, Y., & Wu, Z. (2016). Influence of gouge thickness on permeability of macro-fractured basalt. Journal of Geophysical Research, 121, 8472–8487.Google Scholar
  53. Witherspoon, P. A., Wang, J. S. Y., Iwai, K., & Gale, J. E. (1980). Validity of cubic law for fluid flow in a deformable rock failure. Water Resources Research, 16, 1016–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yamamoto, K., Yoshida, H., Akagawa, F., Nishimoto, S., & Metcalfe, R. (2013). Redox front penetration in the fractured Toki granite, central Japan: an analogue for redox reactions and redox buffering in fractured crystalline host rocks for repositories of long-lived radioactive waste. Applied Geochemistry, 35, 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yamasaki, S., Zwingmann, H., Yamada, K., Tagami, T., & Umeda, K. (2013). Constraining the timing of brittle deformation and faulting in the Toki granite, central Japan. Chemical Geology, 351, 168–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yuguchi, T., Tagami, M., Tsuruta, T., & Nishiyama, T. (2012). Three-dimensional fracture distribution in relation to local cooling in a granitic body: an example from the Toki granitic pluton, Central Japan. Engineering Geology, 149–150, 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhang, M., Takahashi, M., Morin, R. H., & Esaki, T. (2000a). Evaluation and application of the transient-pulse technique for determining the hydraulic properties of low-permeability rocks—Part 1: theoretical evaluation. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 23, 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang, M., Takahashi, M., Morin, R. H., & Esaki, T. (2000b). Evaluation and application of the transient-pulse technique for determining the hydraulic properties of low-permeability rocks—Part 2: experimental application. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 23, 91–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshitaka Nara
    • 1
  • Masaji Kato
    • 2
  • Ryuhei Niri
    • 3
  • Masanori Kohno
    • 4
  • Toshinori Sato
    • 5
  • Daisuke Fukuda
    • 2
  • Tsutomu Sato
    • 2
  • Manabu Takahashi
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Graduate School of EngineeringKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of EngineeringHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringTottori UniversityTottoriJapan
  4. 4.Department of Management of Social Systems and Civil Engineering, Graduate School of EngineeringTottori UniversityTottoriJapan
  5. 5.Japan Atomic Energy AgencyHokkaidoJapan
  6. 6.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Sciences and TechnologyTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations