The Eastern Mediterranean is one of the most prominent hot spots of climate change in the world and extreme climatic phenomena in this region such as drought or extreme rainfall events are expected to become more frequent and intense. In this study climate extreme indices recommended by the joint World Meteorological Organization Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices are calculated for daily precipitation data in 70 weather stations during 1961–2012. Observed trends and changes in daily precipitation extremes over the EM basin were analysed using the RClimDex package, which was developed by the Climate Research Branch of the Meteorological Service of Canada. Extreme and heavy precipitation events showed globally a statistically significant decrease in the Eastern Mediterranean and, in the southern parts, a significant decrease in total precipitation. The overall analysis of extreme precipitation indices reveals that decreasing trends are generally more frequent than increasing trends. We found statistically significant decreasing trends (reaching 74% of stations for extremely wet days) and increasing trends (reaching 36% of stations for number of very heavy precipitation days). Finally, most of the extreme precipitation indices have a statistically significant positive correlation with annual precipitation, particularly the number of heavy and very heavy precipitation days.
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This study was achieved within the framework of Climatology Group of the University of Barcelona (2014 SGR 300, Catalonia Regional Govt) and the WEMOTOR (CSO2014-55799-C2-1-R) and (CGL2015-65627-C3-2-R) Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness projects. The first author is supported by a grant of ERASMUS MUNDUS (AVEMPACE mobility scheme III). Unpublished meteorological data were obtained by contacting the regional National Hydrological and Meteorological Services. The Syrian Meteorological Agency, Lebanon weather Agency, Jordan Weather Forecast, Israel Government Portal, (The Governmental Database) and Israel Meteorological Service, Hellenic National Meteorological Service in Greece, Turkish State Meteorological Service, and Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Environment in Cyprus.
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Mathbout, S., Lopez-Bustins, J.A., Royé, D. et al. Observed Changes in Daily Precipitation Extremes at Annual Timescale Over the Eastern Mediterranean During 1961–2012. Pure Appl. Geophys. 175, 3875–3890 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-017-1695-7