Tsunami Characteristics Along the Peru–Chile Trench: Analysis of the 2015 Mw8.3 Illapel, the 2014 Mw8.2 Iquique and the 2010 Mw8.8 Maule Tsunamis in the Near-field
- 332 Downloads
Tsunamis occur quite frequently following large magnitude earthquakes along the Chilean coast. Most of these earthquakes occur along the Peru–Chile Trench, one of the most seismically active subduction zones of the world. This study aims to understand better the characteristics of the tsunamis triggered along the Peru–Chile Trench. We investigate the tsunamis induced by the Mw8.3 Illapel, the Mw8.2 Iquique and the Mw8.8 Maule Chilean earthquakes that happened on September 16th, 2015, April 1st, 2014 and February 27th, 2010, respectively. The study involves the relation between the co-seismic deformation and the tsunami generation, the near-field tsunami propagation, and the spectral analysis of the recorded tsunami signals in the near-field. We compare the tsunami characteristics to highlight the possible similarities between the three events and, therefore, attempt to distinguish the specific characteristics of the tsunamis occurring along the Peru–Chile Trench. We find that these three earthquakes present faults with important extensions beneath the continent which result in the generation of tsunamis with short wavelengths, relative to the fault widths involved, and with reduced initial potential energy. In addition, the presence of the Chilean continental margin, that includes the shelf of shallow bathymetry and the continental slope, constrains the tsunami propagation and the coastal impact. All these factors contribute to a concentrated local impact but can, on the other hand, reduce the far-field tsunami effects from earthquakes along Peru–Chile Trench.
KeywordsPeru–Chile Trench tsunami local impact numerical modeling spectral analysis
This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe, Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3). The authors would like to thank the colleagues from the USA National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for making available the DART stations records used in this study. We also thank J. M. Miranda for the internal review of the manuscript. We are grateful to the Editor A. Rabinovich, to E. Geist and to the anonymous reviewer for their timely and helpful reviews, which improved the manuscript.
- Aránguiz, R., González, G., González, J., Catalán, P.A., Cienfuegos, R., Yagi, Y., Okuwaki, R., Urra, L., Contreras, K., Del Rio, I. and Rojas, C. (2016). The 16 September 2015 Chile Tsunami from the Post-Tsunami Survey and Numerical Modeling Perspectives. Pure Appl. Geophys., 173 (2), 333–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Berkman, S. C., and Symons, J. M. (1964), The Tsunami of May 22, 1960 as Recorded at Tide Stations. U.S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey, pp.79.Google Scholar
- Contreras-López, M., Winckler, P., Sepúlveda, I., Andaur-Álvarez, A., Cortés-Molina, F., Guerrero, C.J., Mizobe, C.E., Igualt, F., Breuer, W., Beyá, J.F. and Vergara, H. (2016). Field survey of the 2015 Chile tsunami with emphasis on coastal wetland and conservation areas. Pure Appl. Geophys., 173(2), 349–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fritz, H. M., Petroff, C. M., Catalán, P. A., Cienfuegos, R., Winckler, P., Kalligeris, N., Weiss, R., Barrientos, S.E., Meneses, G., Valderas-Bermejo, C., Ebeling, C., Papadopulos, A., Contreras, M., Almar, R., Dominguez, J. C., and Synolakis, C. E. (2011). Field survey of the 27 February 2010 Chile tsunami. Pure Appl. Geophys., 168(11), 1989–2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heidarzadeh, M., Satake, K., Murotani, S., Gusman, A. R., and Watada, S. (2014). Deep-Water Characteristics of the Trans-Pacific Tsunami from the 1 April 2014 M w 8.2 Iquique, Chile Earthquake. Pure Appl. Geophys., 172(3–4), 719–730.Google Scholar
- Kajiura, K. (1970). Tsunami source, energy and the directivity of wave radiation. Bull. Earthquake Research Institute, 48, 835–869.Google Scholar
- Kajiura, K. (1981). Tsunami energy in relation to parameters of the earthquake fault model. Bull. Earthquake Research Institute, 56, 415–440.Google Scholar
- Miranda, J.M., Luis, J., Reis, C., Omira, R., and Baptista, M.A. (2014), Validation of NSWING, a multi-core finite difference code for tsunami propagation and run-up. American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting, San Francisco. Paper Number : S21A-4390. Session Number and Title: S21A, Natural Hazards.Google Scholar
- NOAA (2015), https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/16sep2015.html. last accessed 20/11/2015.
- Okada, Y. (1985). Surface deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a half-space. Bull Seismol. Soc. Am., 75(4), 1135–1154.Google Scholar
- Pollitz, F.F., Brooks, B., Tong, X., Bevis, M.G., Foster, J.H., Bürgmann, R., Smalley, R., Vigny, C., Socquet, A., Ruegg, J.C. and Campos, J. (2011). Coseismic slip distribution of the February 27, 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38(9), doi: 10.1029/2011GL047065.Google Scholar
- Tong, X. P., Sandwell, D., Luttrell, K., Brooks, B., Bevis, M., Shimada, M., Foster, J., Smalley, R., Parra, H., Soto, J. C. B., Blanco, M., Kendrick, E., Genrich, J., and Caccamise, D. J. (2010), The 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake: Downdip rupture limit revealed by space geodesy, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37. L24311, doi: 10.1029/2010GL045805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- USGS (2014), US Geological Survey, M8.2 and Aftershocks Offshore Northern Chile Earthquake of 1 April 2014, available at: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqarchives/poster/2014/20140401.pdf , last accessed 10/01/2016.
- USGS (2015), US Geological Survey, earthquake general summary available at: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us20003k7a#general_summary , last accessed 20/11/2015.
- Ye, L., Lay, T., Kanamori, H., and Koper, K. D. (2016). Rapidly Estimated Seismic Source Parameters for the 16 September 2015 Illapel, Chile Mw 8.3 Earthquake. Pure App. Geophys., 173(2), 321–332.Google Scholar