Pure and Applied Geophysics

, Volume 170, Issue 12, pp 2107–2125 | Cite as

Spectral Ratio Estimates for Site Effects on the Horst–Graben System in West Turkey

  • Nİhal AkyolEmail author
  • Tevfİk Özgür Kurtulmuş
  • Murat Çamyildiz
  • Talİp Güngör


Recordings of micro- and moderate-size local earthquakes have been used to quantify site effects in the central-west Turkey which contains one of the world’s best examples of a rapid intra-continental extension with its high population and industrial potential. We analyzed 436 earthquakes with local magnitudes ranging between 2.0 and 5.6 using three component digital recordings from 32 stations. Site functions were obtained using two different spectral ratio approaches (horizontal to vertical spectral ratio, HVSR, and standard spectral ratio, SSR). HVSR estimates of transverse and radial S-waves were compared with one another. Epicentral distance, magnitude and back-azimuth dependencies of site functions were also evaluated. In general, HVSR values from transverse and radial S-waves are similar within a factor of 2. The back-azimuth dependencies of transverse S-wave HVSR results are more significant than distance and magnitude dependencies. On the other hand, averaging of transverse and radial S-wave HVSR results eliminates systematic back-azimuth dependencies caused by source radiation effects. Distributions of HVSR estimates along ~N–S linear array, which traversed main grabens in the region with a station spacing of 3–4 km, reflect subsurface geological complexities in the region. The sites located near the basin edges are characterized by broader HVSR curves. Broad HVSR peaks could be attributed to the complexity of wave propagation related to significant 2D/3D velocity variations at the sediment–bedrock interface near the basin edges. The results also show that, even if the site is located on a horst, the presence of weathered zones along the surface could cause moderate frequency dependent site effects. Comparison of HVSR and SSR estimates for the stations on the graben sites showed that SSR estimates give larger values at lower frequencies which could be attributed to lateral variations in regional velocity and attenuation values caused by basin geometry and edge effects.


Site function site resonance frequency horizontal to vertical spectral ratio standard spectral ratio West Turkey 



This paper is part of a Bachelor thesis undertaken by Murat Çamyıldız at the Geophysical Engineering Dept. in Dokuz Eylül University (DEU) and of the Ph.D. thesis undertaken by Tevfik Özgür Kurtulmuş at the Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences in the DEU. It is supported by DEU Scientific Research Foundation Grant BAP-Project No: 2008.KB.FEN.08. Base maps in Fig. 1 are taken from Çİftçİ et al. (2010). Figure 2 was produced using public domain software ‘Generic Mapping Tools (GMT)’ (Wessel and Smith, 1995). We thank WASRE network team (Brian Mitchell, Lupei Zhu, Mike Fort, M. Ali Danışman, Oğuz Demir, Zülfikar Erhan, Adem Somer and Emre Timur) for their dedicated efforts during data collection stage. We also thank Lupei Zhu, Aybige Akıncı and Sebastiano D’Amico for their assistance during data processing stage. We are grateful to Brian J. Mitchell for editing English of the text, anonymous reviewers and PAGEOPH associate editor who significantly improved the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nİhal Akyol
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tevfİk Özgür Kurtulmuş
    • 1
  • Murat Çamyildiz
    • 2
  • Talİp Güngör
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Geophysics, Faculty of EngineeringDokuz Eylül UniversityBuca-İzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Turkish Petroleum CooperationÇankaya-AnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Geology, Faculty of EngineeringDokuz Eylül UniversityBuca-İzmirTurkey

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