The peptidic neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) has received great attention because it has been implicated in the regulation of several organ systems. In particular, NPY is involved in the regulatory loops that control food intake in the hypothalamus and appears also to be important for regulating the activity of neuroendocrine axes under poor metabolic conditions. Furthermore, NPY exerts vasoconstrictive action on the vasculature and potentiates the actions of many other vasoconstrictors. In addition, it was demonstrated to have trophic properties and could therefore contribute to cardiovascular remodeling. These various effects plus a number of others make NPY an attractive target for the potential treatment of human diseases, such as obesity, metabolic disorders, hypertension and heart failure.