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Cellular mechanisms and signals that coordinate plasma membrane repair

Abstract

Plasma membrane forms the barrier between the cytoplasm and the environment. Cells constantly and selectively transport molecules across their plasma membrane without disrupting it. Any disruption in the plasma membrane compromises its selective permeability and is lethal, if not rapidly repaired. There is a growing understanding of the organelles, proteins, lipids, and small molecules that help cells signal and efficiently coordinate plasma membrane repair. This review aims to summarize how these subcellular responses are coordinated and how cellular signals generated due to plasma membrane injury interact with each other to spatially and temporally coordinate repair. With the involvement of calcium and redox signaling in single cell and tissue repair, we will discuss how these and other related signals extend from single cell repair to tissue level repair. These signals link repair processes that are activated immediately after plasma membrane injury with longer term processes regulating repair and regeneration of the damaged tissue. We propose that investigating cell and tissue repair as part of a continuum of wound repair mechanisms would be of value in treating degenerative diseases.

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Acknowledgements

A. H. performed this work as part of his doctoral studies at the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at the George Washington University, and this writing constitutes part of his Ph.D. dissertation. J. K. J. and A. H. acknowledge financial support by Grants from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease (R01AR055686), National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U54HD090257), and Clark Charitable Foundation. We thank our lab members for useful discussions and inputs during the course of writing and editing this work.

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Horn, A., Jaiswal, J.K. Cellular mechanisms and signals that coordinate plasma membrane repair. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 75, 3751–3770 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-018-2888-7

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Keywords

  • Injury
  • Calcium
  • Lipids
  • Redox
  • Cell membrane
  • Tissue repair