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Extracellular vesicles regulate the human osteoclastogenesis: divergent roles in discrete inflammatory arthropathies

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Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are subcellular signalosomes. Although characteristic EV production is associated with numerous physiological and pathological conditions, the effect of blood-derived EVs on bone homeostasis is unknown. Herein we evaluated the role of circulating EVs on human osteoclastogenesis.


Blood samples from healthy volunteers, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients were collected. Size-based EV sub-fractions were isolated by gravity-driven filtration and differential centrifugation. To investigate the properties of EV samples, resistive pulse sensing technique, transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry and western blot were performed. CD14+ monocytes were separated from PBMCs, and stimulated with recombinant human M-CSF, RANKL and blood-derived EV sub-fractions. After 7 days, the cells were fixed and stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and counted.


EVs isolated by size-based sub-fractions were characterized as either microvesicles or exosomes (EXO). Healthy (n = 11) and RA-derived (n = 12) EXOs profoundly inhibited osteoclast differentiation (70%, p < 0.01; 65%, p < 0.01, respectively). In contrast, PsA-derived (n = 10) EXOs had a stimulatory effect (75%, p < 0.05). In cross-treatment experiments where EXOs and CD14+ cells were interchanged between the three groups, only healthy (n = 5) and RA (n = 5)-derived EXOs inhibited (p < 0.01, respectively) the generation of osteoclasts in all groups, whereas PsA (n = 7)-derived EXOs were unable to mediate this effect.


Our data suggest that blood-derived EXOs are novel regulators of the human osteoclastogenesis and may offer discrete effector function in distinct inflammatory arthropathies.

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Acid citrate dextrose-A


American College of Rheumatology


Analysis of variance


American Type Culture Collection


Calcitonin receptor


Cluster of differentiation 14


Cellular oncogene Fos


Macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor


Catepsin K




Disease activity score


Transmembrane 7 superfamily member 4


European League Against Rheumatism


Extracellular vesicle




Fluorescence-activated cell sorting


Fetal bovine serum


Fluorescein isothiocyanate


Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase


Immunoglobulin G


International Society for Extracellular Vesicles




Macrophage colony-stimulating factor






Nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1




Osteoclast-associated immunglobulin-like receptor


Peripheral blood mononuclear cell


Phosphate-buffered saline


Polymerase chain reaction


Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B


RANK ligand


Revolution per minute


Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium


Recombinant Staphylococcal Protein A


Room temperature


Size-exclusion chromatography


Soluble immune complex


Src-like adaptor protein


Transmission electron microscopy


Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase


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This work was supported by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund OTKA-NN111023, OTKA-NKFIH #11958; MEDINPROT and BMBS COST Action BM1202 ME HAD. Funding was provided by National Heart Program (Grant Nos. OTKA 120237, NKFIA, and KP-16-1-2016-0017).

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All authors were involved in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and all authors approved the final version to be published. Dr. Nagy had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

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Correspondence to György Nagy.

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Supplementary Figure 1 Flow cytometry gate determination for ‘MV’ analysis. A, The experiment was carried out using MegaMix Beads (BioCytex, Marseille, France) and was optimized with 1 μm Silica Beads Fluo-Green (Kisker, Steinfurt, Germany). Logarithmic FSC, SSC scales were used during the measurements to visualize the ‘MVs’. ‘MVs’ are EVs of 100–1000 nm diameter. B, C, Decreased number of Annexin V positive events were detected in the ‘MV gate’ after detergent treatment. (TIFF 3711 kb)


Supplementary Figure 2 The effect of different concentrations of SICs on the OC differentiation. SICs were generated freshly and used in different concentrations: 0.25X; 0.5X; 1X and 2X SIC treatment means that 0.25; 0.5; 1 and 2 µL of SIC samples were added to 100 µL media. The graph represents the fold increase in the number TRAP-positive cells with ≥ 3 nuclei. The values mark the mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. (TIFF 2480 kb)


Supplementary Figure 3 The effect of size exclusion chromatography purified EXO samples on human in vitro osteoclastogenesis. Platelet free plasma samples of healthy donors (n = 2) were filtrated with 0.8 µm nanopore membranes and purified with qEV Size Exclusion Columns (Izon Science, Christchurch, New Zealand) according to manufacturer’s instructions. Then the samples were centrifuged with 100 000g, resuspended in 1*PBS and used to treat differentiating OC samples as in the previously described experiments. The graph represents the fold increase in the number of OCs (TRAP-positive cells with ≥ 3 nuclei). The values represent the mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05 ‘EXO’ refers to small EVs of approximately 100 nm diameter. (TIFF 735 kb)


Supplementary Figure 4 OPG, RANK, RANKL expression of EVs. EXO samples, conjugated to aldehyde/sulfate latex beads were studied by flow cytometry. Differential detergent lysis was used to study the MVs. The values represent the mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05. (JPEG 189 kb)


Supplementary Figure 5 The detection of various CD markers on EV samples. EXO samples, conjugated to aldehyde/sulfate latex beads were studied by flow cytometry. Differential detergent lysis was used to identify the MVs. The values represent the mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05. (TIFF 13634 kb)

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Marton, N., Kovács, O.T., Baricza, E. et al. Extracellular vesicles regulate the human osteoclastogenesis: divergent roles in discrete inflammatory arthropathies. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 74, 3599–3611 (2017).

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