Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 73, Issue 22, pp 4175–4202 | Cite as

Striated muscle function, regeneration, and repair

Review

Abstract

As the only striated muscle tissues in the body, skeletal and cardiac muscle share numerous structural and functional characteristics, while exhibiting vastly different size and regenerative potential. Healthy skeletal muscle harbors a robust regenerative response that becomes inadequate after large muscle loss or in degenerative pathologies and aging. In contrast, the mammalian heart loses its regenerative capacity shortly after birth, leaving it susceptible to permanent damage by acute injury or chronic disease. In this review, we compare and contrast the physiology and regenerative potential of native skeletal and cardiac muscles, mechanisms underlying striated muscle dysfunction, and bioengineering strategies to treat muscle disorders. We focus on different sources for cellular therapy, biomaterials to augment the endogenous regenerative response, and progress in engineering and application of mature striated muscle tissues in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we discuss the challenges and perspectives in translating muscle bioengineering strategies to clinical practice.

Keywords

Muscle Cardiac Skeletal Tissue engineering Stem cells iPS 

Abbreviations

CM

Cardiomyocyte

CSC

Cardiac stem cell

CV

Conduction velocity

CHD

Congenital heart defect

DGC

Dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex

ECM

Extracellular matrix

FAP

Fibroadipogenic progenitors

hESC

Human embryonic stem cell

hiPSC

Human induced pluripotent stem cell

mESC-CM

Mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte

MHC

Myosin heavy chain

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

MSC

Mesenchymal stem cells

NRVM

Neonatal rat ventricular myocyte

PIC

Pw1 interstitial cell

RyR

Ryanodine receptor

SR

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

SERCA

Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase

SC

Satellite cell

SIS

Small intestine submucosa

T-tubule

Transverse tubule

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

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