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Ion channels in regulated cell death

Abstract

Activation of ion channels and pores are essential steps during regulated cell death. Channels and pores participate in execution of apoptosis, necroptosis and other forms of caspase-independent cell death. Within the program of regulated cell death, these channels are strategically located. Ion channels can shrink cells and drive them towards apoptosis, resulting in silent, i.e. immunologically unrecognized cell death. Alternatively, activation of channels can induce cell swelling, disintegration of the cell membrane, and highly immunogenic necrotic cell death. The underlying cell death pathways are not strictly separated as identical stimuli may induce cell shrinkage and apoptosis when applied at low strength, but may also cause cell swelling at pronounced stimulation, resulting in regulated necrosis. Nevertheless, the precise role of ion channels during regulated cell death is far from being understood, as identical channels may support regulated death in some cell types, but may cause cell proliferation, cancer development, and metastasis in others. Along this line, the phospholipid scramblase and Cl/nonselective channel anoctamin 6 (ANO6) shows interesting features, as it participates in apoptotic cell death during lower levels of activation, thereby inducing cell shrinkage. At strong activation, e.g. by stimulation of purinergic P2Y7 receptors, it participates in pore formation, causes massive membrane blebbing, cell swelling, and membrane disintegration. The LRRC8 proteins deserve much attention as they were found to have a major role in volume regulation, apoptotic cell shrinkage and resistance towards anticancer drugs.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by DFG SFB699-A7/A12, DFG KU756/12-1 and Volkswagenstiftung AZ 87 499. We thank Prof. Dr. Stefan Krautwald and PD Dr. Andreas Linkermann (Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel) for providing the NIH-3T3 cell line and critical discussions.

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Correspondence to Karl Kunzelmann.

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Kunzelmann, K. Ion channels in regulated cell death. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 73, 2387–2403 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-016-2208-z

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Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Necroptosis
  • TMEM16F
  • Anoctamin 6
  • LRRC8A