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Mechanisms of developmental neurite pruning

Abstract

The precise wiring of the nervous system is a combined outcome of progressive and regressive events during development. Axon guidance and synapse formation intertwined with cell death and neurite pruning sculpt the mature circuitry. It is now well recognized that pruning of dendrites and axons as means to refine neuronal networks, is a wide spread phenomena required for the normal development of vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. Here we will review the arising principles of cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurite pruning. We will discuss these principles in light of studies in multiple neuronal systems, and speculate on potential explanations for the emergence of neurite pruning as a mechanism to sculpt the nervous system.

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Abbreviations

ALS:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

BDNF:

Brain derived neurotrophic factor

CRMPs:

Collapsin response mediator proteins

CST:

Corticospinal tract

da:

Dendritic arborization

dLGN:

Dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus

DRG:

Dorsal root ganglia

EcR:

Ecdysone receptor

GAP:

GTPase activating protein

GEF:

GTP exchange factor

IPB:

Infrapyramidal bundle

MARCM:

Mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker

MB:

Mushroom body

MTs:

Microtubules

NFs:

Neurofilaments

NGF:

Nerve growth factor

NMJ:

Neuromuscular junction

PS:

Phosphatidylserine

RGCs:

Retinal ganglion cells

SC:

Superior colliculus

SCG:

Superior cervical ganglion

TGF-β:

Transforming growth factor-β

UPS:

Ubituitin proteasome System

WD:

Wallerian degeneration

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Acknowledgments

We thank M. Maor-Nof and S. Yaniv for critical reading of the manuscript and Z. Schoenmann for assistance with the graphics. Research in our laboratories is currently supported by the Israeli Science Foundaton (ISF) and Minerva foundation (A.Y.) and the European Research Council (erc), Israeli Science Foundation (ISF) and Minerva foundation (O.S). O.S. is an incumbent of the Aser Rothstein Career Development Chair.

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Correspondence to Oren Schuldiner or Avraham Yaron.

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Schuldiner, O., Yaron, A. Mechanisms of developmental neurite pruning. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 72, 101–119 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-014-1729-6

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Keywords

  • Neuronal remodeling
  • Axon pruning
  • Axon degeneration
  • Neurodevelopment