Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 71, Issue 17, pp 3199–3218 | Cite as

Control of cerebral size and thickness

  • Tran Cong Tuoc
  • Evangelos Pavlakis
  • Marco Andreas Tylkowski
  • Anastassia Stoykova
Review

Abstract

The mammalian neocortex is a sheet of cells covering the cerebrum that provides the structural basis for the perception of sensory inputs, motor output responses, cognitive function, and mental capacity of primates. Recent discoveries promote the concept that increased cortical surface size and thickness in phylogenetically advanced species is a result of an increased generation of neurons, a process that underlies higher cognitive and intellectual performance in higher primates and humans. Here, we review some of the advances in the field, focusing on the diversity of neocortical progenitors in different species and the cellular mechanisms of neurogenesis. We discuss recent views on intrinsic and extrinsic molecular determinants, including the role of epigenetic chromatin modifiers and microRNA, in the control of neuronal output in developing cortex and in the establishment of normal cortical architecture.

Keywords

Cortex Growth Surface/radial expansion Progenitor diversity Molecular determinants Epigenetic regulation MicroRNA 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We apologize to colleagues whose work we may not have been able to include in this review due to space constraints. We thank J. Staiger for his support, T. Schneider and A. Dudek for proofreading and discussion. This work was supported by the Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, Georg-August-University of Göttingen and TU432/1-1 DFG grant (T.C.T), the Max Planck Gesellschaft (A.S. and A.P.); the Cluster of Excellence and DFG Research Center Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain (A.S. and M.A.T.). The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tran Cong Tuoc
    • 1
  • Evangelos Pavlakis
    • 2
  • Marco Andreas Tylkowski
    • 2
    • 3
  • Anastassia Stoykova
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of NeuroanatomyUniversitätsmedizin GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  2. 2.Research Group of Molecular Developmental NeurobiologyMax-Planck-Institute for Biophysical ChemistryGöttingenGermany
  3. 3.Center Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain (CNMPB)GöttingenGermany

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