Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

, Volume 71, Issue 5, pp 745–770 | Cite as

Bacterial serine proteases secreted by the autotransporter pathway: classification, specificity, and role in virulence

Review

Abstract

Serine proteases exist in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms and have emerged during evolution as the most abundant and functionally diverse group. In Gram-negative bacteria, there is a growing family of high molecular weight serine proteases secreted to the external milieu by a fascinating and widely employed bacterial secretion mechanism, known as the autotransporter pathway. They were initially found in Neisseria, Shigella, and pathogenic Escherichiacoli, but have now also been identified in Citrobacterrodentium, Salmonella, and Edwardsiella species. Here, we focus on proteins belonging to the serine protease autotransporter of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) family. Recent findings regarding the predilection of serine proteases to host intracellular or extracellular protein-substrates involved in numerous biological functions, such as those implicated in cytoskeleton stability, autophagy or innate and adaptive immunity, have helped provide a better understanding of SPATEs’ contributions in pathogenesis. Here, we discuss their classification, substrate specificity, and potential roles in pathogenesis.

Keywords

SPATE Autotransporter Glycoprotein Immune evasion Cytotoxin 

Abbreviations

AIDA-like

Adhesin involved in diffuse adherence-like

AIEC

Adherent-invasive E. coli

APEC

Avian pathogenic E. coli

DAEC

Diffuse-adhering E. coli

EAEC

Enteroaggregative E. coli

EHEC

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli

EIEC

Enteroinvasive E. coli

EPEC

Enteropathogenic E. coli

ETEC

Enterotoxigenic E. coli

ExPEC

Extra-intestinal E. coli

HUS

Hemolytic uremic syndrome

REPEC

Rabbit pathogenic E. coli

SPATE

Serine protease autotransporters from Enterobacteriaceae

STEC

Shiga-toxin secreting E. coli

TA

Trimeric autotransporters

TPS

Two-partner secretion system

UPEC

Uropathogenic E. coli

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Copyright information

© Springer Basel 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, School of MedicineUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

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