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Endoplasmic reticulum stress responses

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In homeostasis, cellular processes are in a dynamic equilibrium. Perturbation of homeostasis causes stress. In this review I summarize how perturbation of three major functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotic cells–protein folding, lipid and sterol biosynthesis, and storing intracellular Ca2+ – causes ER stress and activates signaling pathways collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). I discuss how the UPR reestablishes homeostasis, and summarize our current understanding of how the transition from protective to apoptotic UPR signaling is controlled, and how the UPR induces inflammatory signaling.

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Correspondence to M. Schröder.

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Received 21 August 2007; received after revision 26 October 2007; accepted 29 October 2007

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Schröder, M. Endoplasmic reticulum stress responses. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 65, 862–894 (2008).

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