IL-33 in obesity: where do we go from here?

Abstract

IL-33 is a cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family and is classically associated with type 2-like immune responses. In the adipose tissue, IL-33 is related to the beiging of adipocytes and to the maintenance of adipose tissue-resident immune cells, such as innate lymphoid cells 2, alternatively activated macrophages and regulatory T cells, which contribute to the maintenance of adipose tissue homeostasis. In the obese adipose tissue, the number of these cells is diminished, unlike the expression of IL-33, which is up-regulated. However, despite its increased expression, IL-33 is not able to maintain the homeostasis of the obese adipose tissue. IL-33 treatment, on the other hand, highly improves obesity-related inflammatory and metabolic alterations. The evidence that exogenous IL-33, but not adipose tissue-driven IL-33, regulates the inflammatory process in obesity leaves a gap in the understanding of IL-33 biology. Thus, in this review we discuss the potential mechanisms associated with the impaired action of IL-33 in obesity.

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Acknowledgements

AT credits CNPq (305634/2017-8) for the research productivity fellowship. ERV credits CNPq (208183/2017-5) for the post-doc fellowship.

Funding

Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais/Fapemig (APQ-01420-14) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico/CNPq (447537/2014-8).

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Correspondence to Etel Rocha-Vieira.

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de Oliveira, M.F.A., Talvani, A. & Rocha-Vieira, E. IL-33 in obesity: where do we go from here?. Inflamm. Res. 68, 185–194 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-019-01214-2

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Keywords

  • Inflammation
  • Type 2 innate lymphocyte
  • Beige adipocyte
  • ST2; metabolism