Inflammation Research

, Volume 67, Issue 4, pp 279–284 | Cite as

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: people without celiac disease avoiding gluten—is it due to histamine intolerance?

  • Wolfgang J. Schnedl
  • Sonja Lackner
  • Dietmar Enko
  • Michael Schenk
  • Harald Mangge
  • Sandra J. Holasek
Review

Abstract

Introduction

Food intolerance/malabsorption is caused by food ingredients, carbohydrates (mainly lactose and fructose), proteins (gluten), and biogenic amines (histamine) which cause nonspecific gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. Here we focus on possible etiologic factors of intolerance/malabsorption especially in people with non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or the so-called people without celiac disease avoiding gluten (PWCDAG) and histamine intolerance.

Methods

Recognizing the recently described symptoms of NCGS (PWCDAG) we review correlations and parallels to histamine intolerance (HIT).

Results

We show that intestinal and extra-intestinal NCGS (PWCDAG) symptoms are very similar to those which can be found in histamine intolerance.

Conclusions

After a detailed diagnostic workup for all possible etiologic factors in every patient, a targeted dietary intervention for single or possibly combined intolerance/malabsorption might be more effective than a short-term diet low in fermentable oligo-, di- and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) or the untargeted uncritical use of gluten-free diets.

Keywords

Histamine intolerance Diamine oxidase Food intolerance Food malabsorption Non-celiac gluten sensitivity 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Wolfgang J. Schnedl received speaking honoraria from Sciotec. The other authors declare no competing interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Pathophysiology, Centre for Molecular MedicineMedical University of GrazGrazAustria
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicinePractice for General Internal MedicineBruck/MurAustria
  3. 3.Institute of Laboratory MedicineGeneral Hospital SteyrSteyrAustria
  4. 4.Das Kinderwunsch Institut Schenk GmbHDoblAustria
  5. 5.Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory DiagnosisMedical University of GrazGrazAustria

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