Inflammation Research

, Volume 66, Issue 6, pp 487–503 | Cite as

The α-cyclodextrin complex of the Moringa isothiocyanate suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells through Akt and p38 inhibition

  • Sabrina Giacoppo
  • Thangavelu Soundara Rajan
  • Renato Iori
  • Patrick Rollin
  • Placido Bramanti
  • Emanuela MazzonEmail author
Original Research Paper


In the last decades, a growing need to discover new compounds for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases has led researchers to consider drugs derived from natural products as a valid option in the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a new formulation of Moringa oleifera-derived 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate as a complex with alpha-cyclodextrin (moringin + α-CD) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, a common model used for inflammation studies. In buffered/aqueous solution, the moringin + α-CD complex has enhanced the water solubility and stability of this isothiocyanate by forming a stable inclusion system. Our results showed that moringin + α-CD inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated macrophages by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), by preventing IκB-α phosphorylation, translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and also via the suppression of Akt and p38 phosphorylation. In addition, as a consequence of upstream inhibition of the inflammatory pathway following treatment with moringin + α-CD, the modulation of the oxidative stress (results focused on the expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine) and apoptotic pathway (Bax and Bcl-2) was demonstrated. Therefore, moringin + α-CD appears to be a new relevant helpful tool to use in clinical practice for inflammation-associated disorders.


RAW 264.7 macrophage cells Moringa isothiocyanate α-CD-complexed moringin Inflammation Akt P38 



This study was supported by the current research funds 2016 of IRCCS “Centro Neurolesi Bonino-Pulejo”, Messina, Italy.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sabrina Giacoppo
    • 1
  • Thangavelu Soundara Rajan
    • 1
  • Renato Iori
    • 2
  • Patrick Rollin
    • 3
  • Placido Bramanti
    • 1
  • Emanuela Mazzon
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo”MessinaItaly
  2. 2.Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria, Centro di ricerca Agricoltura e Ambiente (CREA-AA)BolognaItaly
  3. 3.Université d’Orléans et CNRS, ICOA, UMR 7311OrléansFrance

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