Terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages
- 1.1k Downloads
Tea tree oil (TTO) is an essential oil with anti-inflammatory properties, steam distilled from the plant Melaleuca alternifolia. We investigated the immunomodulatory properties of TTO and its components (terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages.
The ability of TTO, terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol to modulate the macrophage response to bacterial LPS stimulation was assessed by ELISA for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 cytokine production and by western blotting for the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which are associated with the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We used a human monocytic cell line (U937) differentiated into macrophages.
LPS induced the production of all cytokines, and TTO and its components significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10. The production of TNF-α was not affected by either TTO or its major components. The modulation of cytokine production was not mediated by changes in NF-κB or p38 MAPK activation.
TTO, terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol can suppress the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated human macrophages; this inhibition was mediated by interfering with the NF-kB, p38 or ERK MAPK pathways.
KeywordsTea tree oil Macrophages Cytokines Inflammation
This work was supported by grants from the Brazilian Federal Government through the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and Coordination for Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). This study was also supported by the State of São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) (Grant number 2009/54190-0 and 2010/18968-3).
- 20.Luvizotto-Santos R, Cordeiro PJM, Vieira EM. Analysis of methyl parathion in tilapia filets using a simple solid phase extraction clean-up and GC-NPD. Braz J Food Technol. 2009;7:158–61.Google Scholar
- 21.Sciarronea D, Ragonesea C, Carnovalea C, Pipernoa A, Dugoa P, Dugoa G, Mondello L. Evaluation of tea tree oil quality and ascaridole: a deep study by means of chiral and multi heart-cuts multidimensional gas chromatography system coupled to mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr. 2010;1217:6422–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Brand C, Ferrante A, Prager RH, Riley TV, Carson CF, Finlay-Jones JJ, Hart PH. The water-soluble components of the essential oil of Melaleuca Alternifólia (tea tree oil) suppress the production of superoxide by human monocytes, but not neutrophils, activated in vitro. Inflamm Res. 2001;50:213–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Jain S, Darveau RP. Contribution of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide to periodontitis. Periodontology. 2000;2010(54):53–70.Google Scholar