Activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) triggers immune and inflammatory events by sensing endogenous danger signals as well as invading pathogens and contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated effect of 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-keto-6-octenedioyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (KOdiA-PC), an oxidized phosphatidylcholine, on TLR4 activation and the underlying regulatory mechanism.
RAW264.7 macrophages were used for the study. The levels of TNF-α, IFN-β, and COX-2 mRNA and protein were determined by quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. Activation of TLR4-signaling was examined by immunoblot and luciferase reporter assays. In vitro binding assay was performed to determine LPS binding to MD2. Macrophage migration was analyzed using a transwell-culture system.
KOdiA-PC prevented the activation of TLR4-signaling components including ERK, JNK, p38, NF-κB, and IRF3 leading to decrease of TNF-α, IFN-β, and COX-2 expression. In vitro binding assay revealed that KOdiA-PC interrupted LPS binding to MD2, a TLR4 co-receptor. Consistently, KOdiA-PC suppressed LPS-induced macrophage migration.
The results demonstrate that KOdiA-PC can modulate TLR4 activation by regulating ligand-receptor interaction. Therefore, endogenously generated, oxidized phospholipids may play a role in resolving inflammation by terminating TLR activation and macrophage recruitment to the inflamed site.
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This study was supported by a grant from the National R&D Program for Cancer Control, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (No. 1120120), a grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MEST) (No. 2012R1A1A3004541), and the Research Fund, 2012 of the Catholic University of Korea. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Responsible Editor: Graham Wallace.
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Kim, M.J., Choi, N.Y., Koo, J.E. et al. Suppression of Toll-like receptor 4 activation by endogenous oxidized phosphatidylcholine, KOdiA-PC by inhibiting LPS binding to MD2. Inflamm. Res. 62, 571–580 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-013-0609-0
- Toll-like receptor 4
- Oxidized phosphatidylcholine
- Oxidized phospholipids