Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 1203–1232 | Cite as

Doing Euclidean Plane Geometry Using Projective Geometric Algebra

  • Charles G. GunnEmail author


The article presents a new approach to euclidean plane geometry based on projective geometric algebra (PGA). It is designed for anyone with an interest in plane geometry, or who wishes to familiarize themselves with PGA. After a brief review of PGA, the article focuses on \(\mathbf {P}(\mathbb {R}^*_{2,0,1}) \), the PGA for euclidean plane geometry. It first explores the geometric product involving pairs and triples of basic elements (points and lines), establishing a wealth of fundamental metric and non-metric properties. It then applies the algebra to a variety of familiar topics in plane euclidean geometry and shows that it compares favorably with other approaches in regard to completeness, compactness, practicality, and elegance. The seamless integration of euclidean and ideal (or “infinite”) elements forms an essential and novel feature of the treatment. Numerous figures accompany the text. For readers with the requisite mathematical background, a self-contained coordinate-free introduction to the algebra is provided in an appendix.


Euclidean geometry Plane geometry Geometric algebra Projective geometric algebra Degenerate signature Sandwich operator Orthogonal projection Isometry 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institüt für Mathematik MA 8-3Technische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Raum+GegenraumFalkenseeGermany

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