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Updated Clinical Perspectives and Challenges of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-T Cell Therapy in Colorectal Cancer and Invasive Breast Cancer

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Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis Aims and scope


In recent years, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and breast cancer (BC) has increased worldwide and caused a higher mortality rate due to the lack of selective anti-tumor therapies. Current chemotherapies and surgical interventions are significantly preferred modalities to treat CRC or BC in advanced stages but the prognosis for patients with advanced CRC and BC remains dismal. The immunotherapy technique of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells has resulted in significant clinical outcomes when treating hematologic malignancies. The novel CAR-T therapy target antigens include GUCY2C, CLEC14A, CD26, TEM8/ANTXR1, PDPN, PTK7, PODXL, CD44, CD19, CD20, CD22, BCMA, GD2, Mesothelin, TAG-72, CEA, EGFR, B7H3, HER2, IL13Ra2, MUC1, EpCAM, PSMA, PSCA, NKG2D. The significant aim of this review is to explore the recently updated information pertinent to several novel targets of CAR-T for CRC, and BC. We vividly described the challenges of CAR-T therapies when treating CRC or BC. The immunosuppressive microenvironment of solid tumors, the shortage of tumor-specific antigens, and post-treatment side effects are the major hindrances to promoting the development of CAR-T cells. Several clinical trials related to CAR-T immunotherapy against CRC or BC have already been in progress. This review benefits academicians, clinicians, and clinical oncologists to explore more about the novel CAR-T targets and overcome the challenges during this therapy.

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Authors and Affiliations



YC, SKY, NMB, MH, XZ, XF, JZ, NBM, KC conceptualized the study; YC, SKY, and NMB Performed the literature analysis and wrote different parts of the original manuscript draft. NMB, KC, JIZ revised, edited, and extended the final draft. All authors have reviewed and approved the manuscript before submission.

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Correspondence to Kuo Chen.

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Authors declare no conflict of interests.

Ethics approval

This work has been approved by the institutional ethical committee of First affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan. All the work related to this retrospective study was in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Cao, Y., Efetov, S.K., He, M. et al. Updated Clinical Perspectives and Challenges of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-T Cell Therapy in Colorectal Cancer and Invasive Breast Cancer. Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. 71, 19 (2023).

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