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Allergen-Specific T Cells in IgE-Mediated Food Allergy

  • Aziza Saidova
  • Ahuva Magder Hershkop
  • Marta Ponce
  • Thomas Eiwegger
Review

Abstract

Food allergy is the major reason for severe anaphylaxis in childhood and adolescence. Currently, effective and safe treatments for food allergy are unavailable. Allergen-specific CD4+ T cells have a pivotal role in causing and maintaining the allergic response to food allergens. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on the role of allergen-specific T cells in food allergy during allergic sensitization, natural tolerance development and allergen immunotherapy. Allergen-specific T cells in the context of food allergy are predominantly of a Th2 type with slightly different surface marker expression patterns in different food allergies. During the process of reverting food allergy to a status of tolerance or sustained unresponsiveness there is a loss of this Th2 committed compartment with an asymptotic approximation to a regulatory and Th0/Th1 dominated compartment seen in non-allergic individuals. This process is accompanied by a significant reduction of absolute frequencies of allergen-specific T cells. Particularly, regulatory T cells may provide significant help to achieve sustained control of the effector cell populations via suppression of effector cell function and possibly induction of blocking antibodies.

Keywords

Allergy IgE-mediated food allergy Helper T cells Th2 cells Regulatory T cells 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Grants from: Islamic Development Bank Merit Scholarship Programme for 1433H (2012-13), HSBC Bank Canada Catalyst Research Grant from The Hospital for Sick Children, Innovation Fund Denmark #6159-00005A.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© L. Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wroclaw, Poland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent MedicineMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Hospital Pediatrics No. 1, Clinical AllergologyTashkent Pediatric Medical InstituteTashkentUzbekistan
  3. 3.Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program, Division of Immunology and Allergy, The Department of PaediatricsThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Translational Medicine Program, Research InstituteThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Department of Pediatrics and Department of ImmunologyThe University of TorontoTorontoCanada

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