Adaptive Immune Cell Dysregulation and Role in Acute Pancreatitis Disease Progression and Treatment

Review
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Abstract

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammation of the pancreas caused by various stimuli including excessive alcohol consumption, gallstone disease and certain viral infections. Managing specifically the severe form of AP is limited due to lack of an understanding of the complex immune events that occur during AP involving immune cells and inflammatory molecules such as cytokines. The relative abundance of various immune cells resulting from the immune dysregulation drives disease progression. In this review, we examine the literature on the adaptive immune cells in AP, the prognostic value of these cells in stratifying patients into appropriate care and treatment strategies based on cell frequency in different AP severities are discussed.

Keywords

Acute pancreatitis Adaptive immune cells 

Abbreviations

AP

Acute pancreatitis

CARS

Compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome

IPN

Infectious pancreatic necrosis

MAP

Mild AP

NLR

Neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio

PMN

Polymorphonuclear

SAP

Severe AP

SIRS

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome

TLRs

Toll-like receptors

Notes

Acknowledgements

This Research was supported by Faculty of Health Sciences University of the Witwatersrand Individual Research Grant 001.283.8441101.5121105.5142 and Seed funding Grant 001 251 8441101 5121105 000000 0000000000 4550. The authors would like to thank Drs M. Nel and J. Devar for critical reading of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

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Copyright information

© L. Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wroclaw, Poland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa

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