From the Deep Sea to Everywhere: Environmental Antigens for iNKT Cells

Abstract

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique subset of innate T cells that share features with innate NK cells and adaptive memory T cells. The first iNKT cell antigen described was found 1993 in a marine sponge and it took over 10 years for other, bacterial antigens to be described. Given the paucity of known bacterial iNKT cell antigens, it appeared as if iNKT cells play a very specialist role in the protection against few, rare and unusual pathogenic bacteria. However, in the last few years several publications painted a very different picture, suggesting that antigens for iNKT cells are found almost ubiquitous in the environment. These environmental iNKT cell antigens can shape the distribution, phenotype and function of iNKT cells. Here, these recent findings will be reviewed and their implications for the field will be outlined.

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Abbreviations

αGalCer:

α-Galactosylceramide

EoE:

Eosinophilic esophagitis

HDE:

House dust extract

MHC:

Major histocompatibility complex

TCR:

T cell receptor

Th:

T helper type

Vα14i :

Invariant Vα14–Jα18 TCR rearrangement

Vα24i :

Invariant Vα24–Jα18 TCR rearrangement

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Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank Drs. Duygu Sag and Alysia M. Birkholz for critical reading of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Gerhard Wingender.

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Wingender, G. From the Deep Sea to Everywhere: Environmental Antigens for iNKT Cells. Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. 64, 291–298 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00005-015-0381-7

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Keywords

  • Innate T cells
  • Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells
  • Environmental antigens
  • Mucosal immunology