Advertisement

Determination of fatty acid composition and metallic element content of four Camellia species used for edible oil extraction in China

  • Yongqing Cao
  • Xiaohua Yao
  • Huadong Ren
  • Kailiang Wang
Short communication
  • 207 Downloads

Abstract

Camellia oleifera, C. meiocarpa, C. yuhsienensis, and C. chekiangoleosa originate from China and are important non-timber trees used for the production of edible oil in South China. The oils extracted from these four Camellia species from two locations in Zhejiang Province were analyzed for fatty acid composition and metallic element content. The predominant fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acid content were similar, whereas the fatty acid composition in the crude oil extracts was quite different among the four Camellia species examined. The lowest oleic acid content and the highest palmitic and linoleic acids content were found in the oil extract of C. yuhsienensis. The content of metallic elements in the crude camellia oil extract considerably varied among the four Camellia species, and they were found in the following decreasing order: Al > Mg > Ca > Mn > Fe > Zn > Cu. The content of these metallic elements was higher in the crude oil extracts of C. yuhsienensis and C. meiocarpa than in those of C. oleifera and C. chekiangoleosa. More than 90% of metallic elements were removed by refining after alkalizing, washing, and decolorization steps.

Keywords

Camellia species Fatty acid Metallic elements Refining 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Number 31600551). The authors thank Dr. Yaping Wang for help with the camellia seeds collection.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Cheng Y-T, Wu S-L, Ho C-Y, Huang S-M, Cheng C-L, Yen G-C (2013) Beneficial effects of Camellia Oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) on ketoprofen-induced gastrointestinal mucosal damage through upregulation of HO-1 and VEG. J Agric Food Chem 62:642–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chinese Standard GB/T 22223-2008 (2008) Determination of total fat, saturated fat, and unsaturated fat in foods—hydrolytic extraction—gas chromatographyGoogle Scholar
  3. Choe E, Min D-B (2006) Mechanisms and factors for edible oil oxidation. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 5:169–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hu L, Fang X, Du M, Zhang J (2015) Anti-fatigue effect of blended Camellia oleifera Abel. tea oil and Ge-132 in mice. Food Nutr Sci 6:1479–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jung E, Lee J, Baek J, Jung K, Lee J, Huh S, Kim S, Koh J, Park D (2007) Effect of Camellia japonica oil on human type I procollagen production and skin barrier function. J Ethnopharmacol 112:127–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Lee C-P, Yen G-C (2006) Antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) oil. J Agric Food Chem 54:779–784CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Lee C-P, Shih P-H, Hsu C-L, Yen G-C (2007) Hepatoprotection of tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 45:888–895CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Li J, Xie M-Y, Nie S-P, Gu L, Hu J-L (2009) Determination of inorganic elements in Oleum Camelliae by ICP-AES. Spectrosc Spect Anal 29:2258–2261Google Scholar
  9. Li S, Zhu X, Zhang J, Li G, Su D, Shan Y (2012) Authentication of pure camellia oil by using near infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition techniques. J Food Sci 77:374–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ma J-L, Ye H, Rui Y-L, Chen G-C, Zhang N-Y (2011) Fatty acid composition of Camellia oleifera oil. J Verbr Lebensm 6:9–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ni Z, Tang F, Yu Q, Wang Z (2016) Determination of trace elements in camellia oil by vortex-assisted extraction followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Food Anal Methods 9:1134–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rui Y, Wang W, Zhang F, Lu Y, Rashid F, Liu Q (2007) A new kind of fatty acid emerging from transgenic cotton seed. Rivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse 84:40–43Google Scholar
  13. Sahari M, Ataii D, Hamedi M (2004) Characteristics of tea seed oil in comparison with sunflower and olive oils and its effect as a natural antioxidant. J Am Oil Chem Soc 81:585–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wang K-L, Cao F-L, Yao X-H, Liu Z-L, Zhao X-M (2011) Chemical composition of fatty acid from Camellia chekiangoleosa Hu. J Nanjing For Univ (Nat Sci Ed) 35:131–134Google Scholar
  15. Yang C, Liu X, Chen Z, Lin Y, Wang S (2016) Comparison of oil content and fatty acid profile of ten new Camellia oleifera cultivars. J Lipids 2016:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ye H, Ma J, Chen G, Li K, Zhang N (2011) Monitoring of mineral elements and heavy metals in Camellia oleifera seeds by ICP-MS. Asian J Chem 23:1885–1886Google Scholar
  17. Zeng Q-L, ChenR-F Zhao X-Q, Wang H-Y, Shen R-F (2011) Aluminium uptake and accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Camellia oleifera Abel. Pedosphere 21:358–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Zhang G-F, Xie S-X, Xue H (2011) Determination of metallic element in Camellia oleifera. Shangdong Agric Sci 8:98–100Google Scholar
  19. Zhuang R-L (2008) Oil-tea camellia in China, 2nd edn. Chinese Forestry Publishing House, Beijing, pp 66–85Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yongqing Cao
    • 1
  • Xiaohua Yao
    • 1
  • Huadong Ren
    • 1
  • Kailiang Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Institute of Subtropical ForestryChinese Academy of ForestryHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations