Skip to main content
Log in

The archaeology of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa: A review

  • Published:
Journal of World Prehistory Aims and scope

Abstract

The impact of Islam within sub-Saharan Africa has been profound. Archaeological evidence for contact with, and acceptance of, Islam is present in most of the continent south of the Sahara, and ranges chronologically from the eighth to the twentieth centuries A.D. Enormous diversity is apparent in the archaeological remains encountered, direct evidence for Islam, mosques, inscriptions, burials and funerary monuments, and complete settlements, and indirect evidence for contacts with the Islamic World, such as imported goods of many kinds, and this illustrates the diversity which characterizes sub-Saharan African Islam. Yet uniformity is often apparent in the Islamization processes themselves: trade, proselytization, and to a lesser extent, Jihad, or holy-war, information which can be gained from archaeology and historical sources, and which is discussed in detail.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Adams, N. (1990). Life in Ottoman times at Qasr Ibrim. In Bonnet, C. H. (ed.),Seventh International Conference for Nubian Studies.Pre-Publication of Main Papers, Geneva, University of Geneva, pp. 1–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Adams, W. Y. (1987). Islamic archaeology in Nubia: An introductory survey. In Hagg, T. (ed.),Nubian Culture Past and Present, Almqvist and Wiksell, Stockholm, pp. 327–361.

    Google Scholar 

  • Agorsah, E. (1986). House forms in the Northern Volta Basin, Ghana: (Evolution, internal spatial organization and the social relationships depicted).West African Journal of Archaeology 16: 25–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed, H. (1993). Trends and issues in the history of Islam in Ethiopia. In Alkali, N. (ed.),Islam in Africa, Ibadan, Spectrum Books, pp. 205–220.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alexander, J. (1988). The Saharan divide in the Nile Valley: The evidence from Qasr Ibrim.African Archaeological Review 6: 73–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alexander, J. (1994). Islamic archaeology: The Ottoman frontier on the Middle Nile.Sudan Archaeological Research Society Newsletter 7: 20–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allen, J. De V. (1980). Settlement patterns on the East African Coast, ca. A.D. 800-1900. In Leakey, R. E., and Ogot, B. A. (eds.),Proceedings of the 8th Panafrican Congress for Prehistory, Nairobi, Louis Leakey Memorial Institute for African Prehistory, pp. 361–363.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allibert, C., Argant, A., and Argant, J. (1990). Le site de Dembeni (Mayotte, Archipel des Comores). Mission 1984.Études Oceans Indiens 11: 63–172.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alpers, E. A. (1975).Ivory and Slaves in East Central Africa, Heineman, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anfray, F. (1968). Aspects de l'archéologie Ethiopienne.Journal of African History 9: 345–366.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anfray, F. (1972). Fouilles de Yeha.Annales d'Ethiopie 9: 45–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anfray, F. (1990).Les Anciens Ethiopiens, Armand Colin, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anquandah, J. (1993). Urbanization and state formation in Ghana during the Iron Age. In Shaw, T.,et al. (eds.),The Archaeology of Africa, Food, Metals and Towns, Routledge, London, pp. 642–651.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arkell, A. J. (1936). Darfur antiquities I. Ain Farah.Sudan Notes and Records 19: 301–311.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arkell, A. J. (1937). Darfur antiquities II. The Tora palaces in Turra at the north end of Jebel Marra.Sudan Notes and Records 20: 91–105.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arkell, A. J. (1946). Darfur antiquities III. The ruined town of Uri in northern Darfur.Sudan Notes and Records 27: 185–202.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arkell, A. J. (1966).A History of the Sudan from the Earliest Tunes to 1821, Athlone Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Audouin, J., and Deniel, R. (1978).L'Islam en Haute-Volta a L'Époque Coloniale, L' Harmattan, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Balfour-Paul, H. G. (1954a). Islam at Uri.Sudan Notes and Records 35: 139–140.

    Google Scholar 

  • Balfour-Paul, H. G. (1954b). Sultan's palaces in Darfur and Wadai.Kush 2: 5–18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Balfour-Paul, H. G. (1955). History and antiquities of Darfur.Museum Pamphlet 5, National Museum, Khartoum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bassat, R. (1893). Les inscriptions de l'Ile de Dahlak.Journal Asiatique 9: 77–111.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baumann, D. (1957). Mafia Island.Tanganyika Notes and Records 46: 4–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bedaux, R. (1979). Archaeological research in the Bani-Niger region (Mali).Nyame Akuma 14: 34–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bernus, E. (1960). Kong et sa Région.Études Eburnéenes 8: 241–324.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berthier, S. (1983).Koumbi Saleh, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Lyons, Lyons.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bivar, A. D. H., and Shinnie, P. (1962). Old Kanuri capitals.Journal of African History 3: 1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blanchy, S., and Said, M. (1990). Inscriptions religieuses et magico-religeuse sur les monuments historiques à Ngazidja (Grand Comore). Le sceau de Salomon.Études Ocean Indien 11: 7–62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bloss, J. F. E. (1936). The story of Suakin.Sudan Notes and Records 14: 272–300.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bourdier, J. P. (1993). The rural mosques of Futa Tbro.African Arts 26: 32–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bradlow, F. R., and Cairns, M. (1978).The Early Cape Muslims. A Study of Their Mosques, Genealogy and Origins, Balkema, Cape Town.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bravmann, R. (1974).Islam and Tribal Art in West Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, H. (1991). Three Kilwa gold coins.Azania 26: 1–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, H. (1992). Early Muslim coinage in East Africa: The evidence from Shanga.Numismatic Chronicle 152: 83–89.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cerulli, E. (1992). Ethiopia's relations with the Muslim world. In Hrbek, I. (ed.),Unesco General History of Africa. Vol 3. Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century (abridged ed.), James Currey, London, pp. 279–284.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ceulemans, P. (1966). Introduction de l'Islam au Congo. In Lewis, I. M. (ed.),Islam in Tropical Africa, International African Institute, London, pp. 174–192.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chanudet, C. (1991). Un site majeur de Moheli: Mwala Mdjini.Études Ocean Indien 12: 9–123.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chidester, D. (1992).Religions of South Africa, Routledge, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chittick, N. (1961). Kisimani Mafia. Excavations at an Islamic settlement on the East African Coast.Tanganyika Ministry of Education, Antiquities Division, Occasional Paper 1, Tanzanian Government, Dar es Salaam.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chittick, N. (1964). Appendix 1. Report on excavations at Kisimani Mafia and Kua.Annual Report of the Antiquities Department, Tanzanian Government, Dar es Salaam.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chittick, N. (1969). An archaeological reconnaissance of the southern Somali coast.Azania 4: 115–130.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chittick, N. (1971). The coast of East Africa. In Shinnie, P. (ed.),The African Iron Age, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 108–141.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chittick, N. (1974).Kilwa. An Islamic Trading City on the East African Coast, British Institute in Eastern Africa, Nairobi.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chittick, N. (1976). An archaeological reconnaissance in the Horn: The British-Somali expedition 1975.Azania 11: 117–133.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chittick, N. (1981). A cistern at Suakin, and some remarks on burnt bricks.Azania 16: 181–183.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chittick, N. (1982). Medieval Mogadishu.Paideuma 28: 45–62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chittick, N. (1984).Manda, Excavations at an Island Port on the Kenya Coast, British Institute in Eastern Africa, Nairobi.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, R. (1967).The Kanuri of Bomu, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Connah, G. (1981).Three Thousand Years in Africa. Man and his Environment in the Lake Chad Region of Nigeria, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Connah, G. (1987).African Civilisations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Conrad, D. C. (1994). A town called Dakajalan: The Sunjata tradition and the question of ancient Mali's capital.Journal of African History 35: 355–377.

    Google Scholar 

  • Conrad, D. C., and Fisher, H. (1982). “The Conquest that never was: Ghana and the Almoravids, 1076.” Part 1: The external Arabic sources.History in Africa 9: 21–59.

    Google Scholar 

  • Conrad, D. C., and Fisher, H. (1983). “The Conquest that never was: Ghana and the Almoravids, 1076.” Part 2: The local oral sources.History in Africa 10: 53–78.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cordell, D. (1985).Dar al-Kuti and the Last Years of the Trans-Saharan Slave Trade, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crawford, O. G. S. (1951).The Fung Kingdom of Sennar, John Bellows, Gloucester.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dressier, P. (1989). La grande mosquée d'Assode.Journal des Africanistes 59: 133–162.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cressier, P. (1992). Archéologie de la devotion Soufi.Journal des Africanistes 62: 69–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cressier, P., and Bernus, P. (1984). La grande mosquée d'Agadez: Architecture et histoire.Journal des Africanistes 54: 5–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crowfoot, J. W. (1911). Some Red Sea ports in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.Geographical Journal 37: 523–550.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crowfoot, J. W. (1922). A note on the date of the towers.Sudan Notes and Records 5: 83–87.

    Google Scholar 

  • Curle, A. T. (1937). The ruined towns of Somaliland.Antiquity 11: 315–327.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Corse, C. (1989). Material aspects of Limba, Yalunka and Kuranko ethnicity: Archaeological research in North Eastern Sierra Leone. In Shennan, S. J. (ed.),Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity, Unwin Hyman, London, pp. 125–140.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Gironcourt, G. R. (1920).Missions de Gironcourt en Afrique Occidentale, 1908–1909, 1911–1912, Société de Géographie, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Neufville, R. L., and Houghton, A. (1965). A description of Ain Farah and of Wara.Kush 13: 195–204.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Thier, F. M. (1963). Singhitini, La Stanleyville Musulmane.Correspondance d'Orient 6, Brussels.

  • Devisse, J. (1975). Intervention. InActes du Colloque. Histoire et Tradition Orale. LéRe Année: L'empire du Mali, Copedith, Paris, pp. 122–124.

    Google Scholar 

  • Devisse, J. (1992). Trade & trade routes in West Africa. In Hrbek, I. (ed.),Unesco General History of Africa. Vol 3. Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century (abridged ed.), James Currey, London, pp. 190–215.

    Google Scholar 

  • Devisse, J., and Diallo, B. (1993). Le Seuil du Wagadu, In Devisse, J. (ed.),Vallées du Niger, Editions de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, pp. 103–115.

    Google Scholar 

  • Devisse, J., Babacar, O., Bah, T M.,et al. (1983).Tegdaoust III, Association Diffusion Pensée Français, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dewar, R. E., and Wright, H. T. (1993). The culture history of Madagascar.Journal of World Prehistory 7: 417–466.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dmochowski, Z. R. (1990a).An Introduction to Nigerian Traditional Architecture. Volume 1: Northern Nigeria, Ethnographica, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dmochowski, Z. R. (1990b).An Introduction to Nigerian Traditional Architecture. Volume 2: South-Western and Central Nigeria, Ethnographica, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Donley-Reid, L. (1987). Life in the Swahili town house reveals the symbolic meaning of spaces and artefact Assemblages.African Archaeological Review 5: 181–192.

    Google Scholar 

  • Donley-Reid, L. (1990). A structuring Structure: The Swahili house. In Kent, S. (ed.),Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 114–126.

    Google Scholar 

  • Duarte, R. T. (1993).Northern Mozambique in the Swahili World, Uppsala University, Uppsala.

    Google Scholar 

  • Du Plessis, I. D. (1972).The Cape Malays, Cape Town, Balkema.

    Google Scholar 

  • Effah-Gyamyi, K. (1985).Bono Manso: An Archaeological Investigation into Early Akan Urbanism, University of Calgary Press, Calgary.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elisseeff, N., and El Hakim, R. (1981).Mission Soudano-Française dans la Province de Mer Rouge (Soudan), Maison de l'Orient Méditerranéen, Lyon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fagan, B. (1969). Excavations at Ingombe Ilede, 1960–1962. In Fagan, B., Phillipson, D., and Daniels, S. (eds.),Iron Age Cultures in Zambia, Vol. 2, Chatto and Windus, London, pp. 55–161.

    Google Scholar 

  • Farias, de Moraes, P. F. (1990). The oldest extant writing in West Africa.Journal des Africanistes 60: 65–113.

    Google Scholar 

  • Farias, de Moraes, P. F. (1995). Medieval Arabic inscriptions from Essuk, Gao, Saney and Bentia.Saharan Studies Association Newsletter 2(2): 7–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferry, R. (1981). Dossier, archéologie en Djibouti.Archéologia 159(Oct): 46–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Filipowiak, W. (1979).Études Archéologiques sur la Capitale Médiévale du Mali, Muzeum Narodowe, Szczecin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Filipowiak, W. (1981). Le complexe du Palais Royale du Mali. InLe Sol, la Parole et l'Ecrit. Mélanges en Hommage à Raymond Mauny, Société Française d'Histoire d'Outre Mer, Paris, pp. 71–89.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flight, C. (1975). Gao 1972: First interim report: A preliminary investigation of the cemetery at Sané.West African Journal of Archaeology 5: 81–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flight, C. (1978). Gao 1974: Second interim report. Excavations in the cemetery at Sané. Ms. on file, Centre of West African Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flight, C. (1979). Gao 1978: Third interim report: Further excavations at Sané. Ms. on file, Centre of West African Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freeman-Grenville, G. S. P. (1963). Coins from Mogadishu, c. 1300 to c 1700.Numismatic Chronicle 3: 179–200.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freeman-Grenvile, G. S. P. and Martin, B. G. (1973). A preliminary handlist of the Arabic inscriptions of the East African coast.Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 2: 98–122.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gallay, A., Huysecom, E., Honegger, M., and Mayor, A. (1990).Hamdallahi, Franz Steiner, Stuttgart.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garlake, P. (1966).The Early Islamic Architecture of the East African Coast, British Institute in East Africa, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garlake, P. (1973).Great Zimbabwe, Thames and Hudson, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garrard, T. F. (1972a). Studies in Akan goldweights (I). The origin of the goldweight system.Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana 13: 1–20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garrard, T. F. (1972b). Studies in Akan goldweights (II). The weight standards.Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana 13: 149–162.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garrard, T. F. (1973a). Studies in Akan goldweights (III). The weight names.Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana 14: 1–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garrard, T. F. (1973b). Studies in Akan goldweights (IV). The dating of Akan goldweights.Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana 14: 149–168.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garrard, T. F. (1975). Pottery and stone goldweights from Ghana.Sankofa 1: 60–68.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gbadamosi, T. G. O. (1974).The Growth of Islam Among the Yoruba, 1841–1908, Longmans, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ghaidan, U. (1976).Lama. A Study in Conservation, East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi.

    Google Scholar 

  • Godlewski, W., and Medeksza, S. (1987). The so-called mosque building in Old Dongola (Sudan). A structural analysis.Archéologie du Nil Moyen 2: 185–205.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greenlaw, J. P. (1995).The Coral Buildings of Suakin, Kegan Paul, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, M. (1987).The Changing Past. Farmers, Kings and Traders in Southern Africa. 200–1860, David Phillip, Cape Town.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hasan, Y. F. (1966). The penetration of Islam in the eastern Sudan. In Lewis, I. M. (ed.),Islam in Tropical Africa, Oxford University Press, London, pp. 112–123.

    Google Scholar 

  • Herbert, H. E. (1935). El-Rih-a Red Sea island.Sudan Notes and Records 18: 308–313.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hinde, S. L. (1897).The Fall of the Congo Arabs, Methuen, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hinkel, F. W. (1977).The Archaeological Map of the Sudan.A Guide to its Use and Explanation of its Principles, Akademie Verlag, Berlin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hiskett, M. (1994).The Course of Islam in Africa, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

    Google Scholar 

  • Holl, A., and Levy, T. (1993). From the Nile Valley to the Chad Basin: Ethnoarchaeology of Shuwa Arab settlements.Biblical Archaeologist 56: 166–179.

    Google Scholar 

  • Holt, P. M. (1979).The Mahdist State in the Sudan. 1881–1898, Oxford University Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horton, M. (1986). Asiatic colonisation of the East African coast: The Manda evidence.Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Unnumbered): 201–213.

  • Horton, M. (1987). Early Muslim trading settlements on the East African coast: New evidence from Shanga.Antiquaries Journal 67: 290–323.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horton, M. (1991). Primitive Islam and architecture in East Africa.Muqamas 8: 103–116.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horton, M. (1994a). East Africa. In Frishman, M., and Khan, H.-U. (eds.),The Mosque, Thames and Hudson, London, pp. 194–207.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horton, M. (1994b). Swahili architecture, space and social structure. In Parker Pearson, M., and Richards, C. (eds.),Architecture and Order. Approaches to Social Space, Routledge, London, pp. 147–169.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horton, M., and Blurton, T. (1988). “Indian” metalwork in East Africa: The bronze lion statuette from Shanga.Antiquity 62: 11–23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horton, M., and Clark, K. (1985). Archaeological survey of Zanzibar.Azania 20: 167–171.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horton, M., Brown, H., and Oddy, W. (1986). The Mtambwe hoard.Azania 21: 115–123.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hunwick, J. (1985).Shari'a in Songhay: The Replies of Al-Maghili to the Questions of Askia Al-Hajj Muhammad, Oxford University Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huysecom, E. (1991). Preliminary report on excavations at Hamdallahi, inland Niger delta of Mali (February/March and October/November 1991).Nyame Akuma 35: 24–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • Iliffe, J. (1995).Africans.The History of a Continent, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Insoll, T. (1993). A preliminary reconnaissance and survey at Gao.Nyame Akuma 39: 40–43.

    Google Scholar 

  • Insoll, T. (1994). Preliminary results of excavations at Gao, September and October 1993.Nyame Akuma 41: 45–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Insoll, T. (1995a). A 16th–17th century AD. sherd of Chinese pottery found at Gao, the Republic of Mali, West Africa.The Oriental Ceramic Society Newsletter 3: 11–13.

    Google Scholar 

  • Insoll, T. (1995b). A cache of hippopotamus ivory at Gao, Mali; and a hypothesis of its use.Antiquity 69: 327–336.

    Google Scholar 

  • Insoll, T. (1996a). Medieval Gao: An archaeological contribution.Journal of African History 37 (in press).

  • Insoll, T. (1996b). An analysis of the Chinese pottery from the settlements of Mtambwe Mkuu and Ras Mkumbuu on Pemba Island, and Tumbatu and Mkokotoni on Zanzibar Island. In Horton, M., (ed.),The Zanzibar and Pemba Excavations, Nairobi, Institute in Eastern Africa, Nairobi (in press).

    Google Scholar 

  • Insoll, T. (1996c). Mosque architecture in Buganda, Uganda.Muqarnas 14 (in press).

  • Insoll, T. (1996d).Islam, Archaeology and History, A Complex Relationship, British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.

  • Insoll, T. (1997). The archaeology of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa (in preparation).

  • Jacques-Meunie, D. (1957). Cités caravanieres de Mauritanie (Tichit et Oualata).Journal Societe des Africanistes 27: 19–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnston, H. A. S. (1967).The Fulani Empire of Sokoto, Oxford University Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Juma, A. M. (1996). The Swahili and the Mediterranean worlds: Pottery of the Late Roman Period from Zanzibar.Antiquity 70: 148–154.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalck, P. (1993).Central African Republic. World Bibliography Series 152, Clio, Oxford.

  • Khan, H. U. (1994). An overview of contemporary mosques. In Frishman, M., and Khan, H. U. (eds.),The Mosque, Thames and Hudson, London, pp. 247–272.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kidane, G., and Wilding, R. (1976).The Ethiopian Cultural Heritage, University of Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirkman, J. (1963).Gedi, The Palace, Mouton, The Hague.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirkman, J. (1964).Men and Monuments on the East African Coast, Butterworth Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirkman, J. (1966).Ungwana on the Tana, Mouton, The Hague.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lange, D. (1992). The Chad region as a crossroads. In Hrbek, I. (ed.),General History of Africa, Volume 3: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century (abridged ed.), James Currey, London, pp. 216–225.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leary, A. (1978). West Africa. In Mitchell, G. (ed.),Architecture of the Islamic World, Thames and Hudson, London, pp. 274–277.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lebeuf, A. M. D. (1962). Enceintes de briques de la région Tchadienne. In Mortelmans, G., and Nenquin, J. (eds.),Actes du IVe Panafricain Congres de Prehistoire et de l'Etude du Quaternaire, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, pp. 437–443.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lebeuf, A. M. D. (1967). Boum Massenia. Capitale de l'ancien Royaume du Baguirmi.Journal des Africanistes 37: 214–244.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lebeuf, A. M. D. (1969).Les Principautés Kotoko: Essai sur le Caractère sacré de l'Autorité, CNRS, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lebeuf, A. M. D. and Lebeuf, J. P. (1973). Symbolic monuments of the Logone-Birni royal palace (northern Cameroons). In Alexandre, P. (ed.).French Perspectives in African Studies, Oxford University Press, London, pp. 62–72.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lebeuf, J. P. (1962).Archéologie Tchadienne, Hermann, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lebeuf, J. P., and Kirsch, J. H. I. (1989).Ouara, Ville Perdue (Tchad), Editions Recherches sur les Civilisations, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levtzion, N. (1973).Ancient Ghana and Mali, Methuen, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levtzion, N. (1978). The Sahara and Sudan from the Arab conquest of the Maghrib to the rise of the Almoravids. In Fage, J. (ed.),The Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 2, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 637–680.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levtzion, N. (1985a). The early states of the western Sudan to 1500. In Ajayi, J., and Crowder, M. (eds.),History of West Africa, Vol 1, Longmans, Harlow, pp. 129–166.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levtzion, N. (1985b). Slavery and Islamization in Africa: A comparative study. In Willis, J. R. (ed.),Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa, Frank Cass, London, pp. 182–198.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levtzion, N., and Hopkins, J. F. P. (1981).Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West African History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewicki, T. (1960). Quelques extraits inédits relatifs aux voyages des commerçants et des missionaries Ibadites Nord-Africains au pays du Soudan Occidental et Central au Moyen age.Folia Orientalia 2: 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewicki, T. (1971). The Ibadites in Arabia and Africa.Cahiers d'Histoire Mondiale 13: 3–130.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, H. S. (1966). The origins of the Galla and Somali.Journal of African History 7: 27–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewis, I. M. (1980). Introduction. In Lewis, I. M. (ed.),Islam in Tropical Africa, Hutchinson, London, pp. 4–98.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lhote, H. (1951). Sur l'emplacement de la Ville de Tadmekka. Antique capitale des Berberes Soudanais.Notes Africaines 51: 65–69.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lhote, H. (1972). Recherches sur Takedda, ville decrité par le voyageur Arabe Ibn Battouta et située en air.Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (B) 34: 429–470.

    Google Scholar 

  • Logan, P. N. (1929). The walled city of Kano.Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects 36: 402–406.

    Google Scholar 

  • Madigan, C. T. (1922). A description of some old towers in the Red Sea Province, north of Port Sudan.Sudan Notes and Records 5: 78–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathew, G. (1956). Chinese pottery in East Africa and on the coast of southern Arabia.Oriental Art 2: 50–55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Matthews, D. H. (1953). The Red Sea style.Kusk 1: 60–87.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mauny, R. (1950). La tour et la mosquée de l'Askia Mohammed à Gao.Notes Africaines 47: 66–67.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mauny, R. (1951). Notes d'archéologie au Sujet de Gao.Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (B) 13: 837–852.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mauny, R. (1952). Notes d'archéologie sur Tombouctou.Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (B) 14: 899–918.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mauny, R. (1955). Notes d'histoire et d'archéologie sur Azougi, Chinguetti et Ouadane.Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (B) 17: 142–162.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mauny, R. (1961).Tableau Géographique de l'Ouest Africain au Moyen Age, Institut Français de l'Afrique Noire, Dakar.

    Google Scholar 

  • McIntosh, R. J., and McIntosh, S. K. (1988). FromSiècles Obscurs to Revolutionary Centuries in the Middle Niger.World Archaeology 20: 141–165.

    Google Scholar 

  • McIntosh, S. K. (1994). Changing perceptions of West Africa's past: Archaeological research since 1988.Journal of Archaeological Research 2: 165–198.

    Google Scholar 

  • McIntosh, S. K. (ed.) (1995).Excavations at Jenne-jeno, Hambarketolo, and Kaniana (Inland Niger Delta, Mali), the 1981 Season, University of California Press, Los Angeles.

    Google Scholar 

  • McIntosh, S. K., and McIntosh, R. J. (1980). Prehistoric investigations in the region of Jenne, Mali.Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 2, British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.

  • McIntosh, S. K., and McIntosh, R. J. (1986). Archaeological reconnaissance in the region of Timbuktu, Mali.National Geographic Research 2: 302–319.

    Google Scholar 

  • McIntosh, S. K., and McIntosh, R. J. (1993). Field survey in the Tumulus zone of Senegal.African Archaeological Review 11: 73–107.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell, J. C. (1956).The Yao Village, Manchester University Press, Manchester.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohammed, I. M. (1986). The archaeology of central Darfur (Sudan) in the 1st millenium AD.Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 14, British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.

  • Monod, T. (1938). Teghaza, la ville en Sel Gemme (Sahara Occidental).La Nature 15 Mai: 289–296.

    Google Scholar 

  • Monod, T. (1940). Nouvelles remarques sur Teghaza (Sahara Oca.).Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire 2: 248–254.

    Google Scholar 

  • Monod, T. (1969). Le 'Ma'den Ijafen: Une Epave Caravaniere Ancienne dans la Majabat Al-Koubra. InActes du 1er Colloque International d'Archéologie Africaine, 1966, Fort Lamy, pp. 286–320.

  • Moody, H. (1967). The walls of Kano City.Nigeria Maganne 92: 19–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mordini, A. (1957). Un tissu Musulman du Moyen Age provenant du couvent de Dabra Dammo (Tigrai, Ethiopie).Annales d'Ethiopie 2: 75–77.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moughtin, J. C. (1972). The Friday mosque, Zaria City.Savanna 1: 143–163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oded, A. (1974).Islam in Uganda.Islamization Through a Centralised State in Pre-Colonial Africa, John Wiley, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oman, G. (1974). The Islamic necropolis of Dahlak Kebir in the Red Sea. Report on a preliminary survey carried out in April 1972.East and West 24: 249–295.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ozanne, P. (1971). Ghana. In Shinnie, P. L. (ed.),The African Iron Age, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 36–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paques, V. (1977).Le Roi Pécheur et le Roi Chasseur, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parrinder, G. (1953).Religion in an African City, Oxford University Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paul, A. (1952). Ancien tombs in Kassala Province.Sudan Notes and Records 33: 54–57.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paul, A. (1955). Aidhab: A medieval Red Sea port.Sudan Notes and Records 36: 64–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • Polet, J. (1985).Tegdaoust IV. Fouillé d'Un Quartier de Tegdaoust, Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Posnansky, M. (1973). The early development of trade in West Africa: Some archaeological considerations.Ghana Social Science Journal 2: 87–100.

    Google Scholar 

  • Posnansky, M., and De Corse, C. (1986). Historical Archaeology in Sub-Saharan Africa: A review.Historical Archaeology 20: 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Raimbault, M. (1991). Prospection dans les Daounas et environs (Juin 1986). In Raimbault, M. and Sanogo, K. (eds.),Recherches Archéologiques au Mali, Karthala, Paris, pp. 203–214.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reed, G. (1994). Archaeological remains in the Kebkebiya area of northern Darfur.Sudan Archaeological Research Society Newsletter 7: 5–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robert, D. (1970a). Report on the excavations at Tegdaoust.West African Archaeological Newsletter 12: 64–68.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robert, D. (1970b). Les fouilles de Tegdaoust.Journal of African History 11: 471–493.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robert, S. (1970). Fouilles Archéologiques sur le site Presume d'Aoudaghost (1961–1968).Folia Orientalia 12: 261–278.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robert-Chaleix, D. (1989).Tegdaoust V, Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Saitowitz, S. J., Reid, D. L., and Van der Merwe, N. J. (1996). Glass bead trade from Islamic Egypt to South Africa c.AD 900-1250.South African Journal of Science 92: 101–104.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sanseverino, H. (1983). Archaeological remains on the southern Somali coast.Azania 18: 151–164.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sauvaget, J. (1950). Les epitaphes royales de Gao.Bulletin de l'Institut Français de l'Afrique Noire 12: 418–440.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schacht, J. (1954). Sur la diffusion des formes d'architecture religieuse Musulmane à travers le Sahara.Travaux de l'Institut des Recherches Sahariennes 11: 11–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schacht, J. (1957). Islam in northern Nigeria.Studia Islamica 8: 123–146.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schneider, M. (1967). Stéles funéraires Arabes de Quiha.Annales d'Ethiopie 7: 107–118.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shinnie, P. (1980). Archaeology in Gonja, Ghana. InLe Sol, la Parole et l'Ecrit. Melanges en Hommage a Raymond Mauny, Societe Francaise d'Histoire d'Outre Mer, Paris, pp. 65–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • Silverman, R. A. (1982). 14th–15th century Syrio-Egyptian brassware in Ghana.Nyame Akuma 20: 13–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sinclair, P. (1982). Chibuene. An early trading site in southern Mozambique.Paideuma 28: 149–164.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sinclair, P. (1987).Space, Time and Social Formation, Uppsala University, Uppsala.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skinner, E. P. (1966). Islam in Mossi society. In Lewis, I. M. (ed.),Islam in Tropical Africa, Oxford University Press, London, pp. 350–373.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, M. C. and Wright, H. T. (1988). The ceramics from Ras Hafun in Somalia: Notes on a classical maritime site.Azania 23: 115–141.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soghayroun, I. Z. (1984).The Omani and South Arabian Muslim Factor in East Africa, Dar Al-'Ulum, Riyadh.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stahl, A. B. (1994). Innovation, diffusion, and culture contact: The Holocene archaeology of Ghana.Journal of World Prehistory 8: 51–112.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevenson, R. C. (1963). Some aspects of the spread of Islam in the Nuba Mountains.Sudan Notes and Records 44: 9–20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sutton, J. E. G. (1990).A Thousand Years of East Africa, British Institute in Eastern Africa, Nairobi.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sutton, J. E. G. (1995).Kilwa. The Indian Ocean ReviewMarch: 10–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomassey, P., and Mauny, R. (1951). Campagne de fouilles à Koumbi Saleh.Bulletin de l'Institut Français de l'Afrique Noire (B) 13: 438–462.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomassey, P., and Mauny, R. (1956). Campagne de fouilles de 1950 à Koumbi Saleh.Bulletin de l'Institut Français de l'Afrique Noire (B) 18: 117–140.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thorold, A. (1987). Yao conversion to Islam.Cambridge Anthropology 12: 18–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trimingham, J. S. (1949).Islam in the Sudan, Oxford University Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trimingham, J. S. (1952).Islam in Ethiopia, Oxford University Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trimingham, J. S. (1959).Islam in West Africa, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trimingham, J. S. (1962).A History of Islam in West Africa, Oxford University Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trimingham, J. S. (1964).Islam in East Africa, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trimingham, J. S. (1968).The Influence of Islam upon Africa, Longmans, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Minacker, C. (1979).Tegdaoust II. Recherches sur Aoudaghost. Fouillé d'un Quartier Artisinal, Institut Mauritanien de la Recherche Scientifique, Nouakchott.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vansina, J., Mauny, R., and Thomas, L. V. (1964). The influence of the Mande in West Africa. In Vansina, J., Mauny, R., and Thomas, L. V. (eds.),The Historian in Tropical Africa, Oxford University Press, London, pp. 91–93.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vercoutter, J. (1958). Excavations at Sai 1955.Kush 6: 144–169.

    Google Scholar 

  • Verin, P. (1976). The African element in Madagascar.Azania 11: 135–151.

    Google Scholar 

  • Verin, P. (1986).The History of Civilisation in North Madagascar, Balkema, Rotterdam.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vire, M. M. (1959). Stéles funéraires Musulmanes Soudano-Sahariennes.Bulletin de l'Institut Français de l'Afrique Noire (B) 21: 459–500.

    Google Scholar 

  • Voight, E. A. (1983).Mapungubwe: An Archaeo-Zoological Interpretation of an Iron Age Community, Transvaal Museum, Pretoria.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wiet, G. (1951). Roitelets de Dahlak.Bulletin d'Institut de l'Egypte 34: 89–95.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilding, R. (n.d.)The desert trade of eastern Ethiopia. Ms. on file, British Institute in Eastern Africa, Nairobi.

  • Wilding, R. (1976). Harari domestic architecture.Art and Archaeology Research Papers 9: 31–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilding, R. (1980). The desert trade of eastern Ethiopia. In Leakey, R. E., and Ogot, B. A. (eds.),Proceedings of the 8th Panafrican Congress for Prehistory, Louis Leakey Memorial Institute for African Prehistory, Nairobi, pp. 379–380.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, T. (1979). Swahili funerary architecture of the northern Kenya Coast. In Allen, J. de V., and Wilson, T. (eds.),Swahili Houses and Tombs of the Coast of Kenya, Art and Archaeology Research Papers, London, pp. 33–46.

  • Wilson, T. (1982). Spatial analysis and settlement patterns on the East African coast.Paideuma 28: 201–219.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wright, H. (1984). Early seafarers of the Comoro Islands: The Dembeni Phase of the IXth–Xth centuries AD.Azania 19: 13–59.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wright, H. (1992). Early Islam, oceanic trade and town development on Nzwani: The Comorian Archipelago in the IIth–XVth centuries AD.Azania 27: 81–128.

    Google Scholar 

  • York, R. N. (1973). Excavations at New Buipe.West African Journal of Archaeology 3: 1–189.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zakari, M. (1985). Contribution à l'Histoire des Populations du Sud-Est Nigerien.Études Nigeriennes 53, Institut des Sciences Humaines, Niamey.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Insoll, T. The archaeology of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa: A review. J World Prehist 10, 439–504 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02221202

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02221202

Key words

Navigation