Advertisement

International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 357–365 | Cite as

Behavioral effects in monkeys exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields

  • J. O. de Lorge
  • J. D. Grissett
Article
  • 45 Downloads

Abstract

Several experiments with rhesus and squirrel monkeys on the influence of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields found no effects on behavior. Magnetic fields of 0.3 and 1.0 mT with electric fields of below 1 to 29 V/m at frequencies of 7, 10, 15, 45, 60 and 75 Hz were used. Small differences in ambulatory activity and response rate were occasionally observed, but no consistent effects between or within animals on any measures were obtained. No effects on reaction time, interresponse time, match-to-sample performance, and blood constituents were observed. Such previously reported effects may not be a consequence of ELF values alone, but are probably related to other environmental variables.

Keywords

Magnetic Field Reaction Time Plant Physiology Small Difference Environmental Variable 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ADEY, W. R. (1974): The influence of impressed electrical fields at EEG frequencies on brain and behavior. In: Behavior and Brain Electrical Activity. H. Altshuler and N. Burch (ed.), Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. BEISCHER, D. E., GRISSETT, J. D., and MITCHEL, R. E. (1973): Exposure of man to magnetic fields alternating at extremely low frequency. NAMRL-1180, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Florida. (AD 770 140).Google Scholar
  3. DE LORGE, J. (1972): Operant behavior of rhesus monkeys in the presence of extremely low frequency-low intensity magnetic and electric fields, Experiment 1. NAMRL-1155, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Florida. (AD 754 058).Google Scholar
  4. DE LORGE, J. (1973a): Operant behavior of rhesus monkeys in the presence of extremely low frequency-low intensity magnetic and electric fields, Experiment 2. NAMRL-1179, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Florida. (AD 764 532).Google Scholar
  5. DE LORGE, J. (1973b): Operant behavior of rhesus monkeys in the presence of extremely low frequency-low intensity magnetic and electric fields, Experiment 3. NAMRL-1196, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Florida. (AD 774 106).Google Scholar
  6. DE LORGE, J. (1974): A psychobiological study of rhesus monkeys exposed to extremely low frequency-low intensity magnetic fields. NAMRL-1203, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Florida. (AD A000078).Google Scholar
  7. DE LORGE, J. and MARR, M. J. (1974): Operant methods assessing the effects of ELF electromagnetic fields. In: ELF and VLF Electromagnetic Field Effects. M. A. Persinger, (ed.), Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, 145–175.Google Scholar
  8. EISEMANN, B. (1975): Untersuchungen über Langzeiteinwirkung kleiner Wechselströme 50 Hz auf den Menschen. Inauguraldissertation, Medizinische Fakultät, Universität Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.Google Scholar
  9. FRIEDMAN, H., BECKER, R. O. and BACHMAN, C. H. (1967): Effect of magnetic fields on reaction time performance. Nature (Lond.), 213: 949–956.Google Scholar
  10. FRIEDMAN, H. and CAREY, R. J. (1972): Biomagnetic stressor effects in primates. Physiol. Behav., 9: 171–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. GAVALAS, R. J., WALTER, D. O., HAMER, J. and ADEY, W. R. (1970): Effect of low-level, low-frequency electric fields on EEG and behavior inMacaca nemestrina. Brain Res., 18: 491–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. GAVALAS-MEDICI, R. and MAGDALENO, S. R. (1975): An evaluation of possible effects of 45 Hz, 60 Hz and 75 Hz electric fields on neurophysiology and behavior in monkeys. ONR Technical Report Contract = N00014-69-A-0200-4037.Google Scholar
  13. GRISSETT, J. D. (1971): Exposure of squirrel monkeys for long periods to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields: Central-nervous-system effects as measured by reaction time. NAMRL-1146, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Florida. (AD 735 456).Google Scholar
  14. GRISSETT, J. D., and DE LORGE, J. (1971): Central-nervous-system effects as measured by reaction time in squirrel monkeys exposed for short periods to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields. NAMRL-1137, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Florida. (AD 731 994).Google Scholar
  15. HAMER, J. R. (1968): Effects of low level, low frequency electric fields on human reaction time. Commun. Behav. Biol., Part A, 2: 217–222.Google Scholar
  16. HAUF, G. (1974): Untersuchungen über die Wirkung energietechnischer Felder auf den Menschen. Inauguraldissertation, Medizinische Fakultät, Universität München, Germany.Google Scholar
  17. HAUF, R. (1976): Influence of 50 Hz alternating electric and magnetic fields on human beings. Rev. Gen. Electricité (Numero Special), 85: 31–49.Google Scholar
  18. KEETON, W. T. (1973): Effects of magnets on pigeon homing. In: Animal Orientation and Navigation, A Symposium. S. Galler, K. Schmidt-Koening, G. Jacobs and R. Belleville (ed.), NASA SP-262, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 579–594.Google Scholar
  19. KÖNIG, H. (1971): Biological effects of extremely low frequency electrical phenomena in the atmosphere. J. interdiscipl. Cycle Res., 2: 317–323.Google Scholar
  20. KÖNIG, H. L. (1975): Unsichtbare Umwelt. Heinz Moos Verlag, München.Google Scholar
  21. KÖNIG, H. L. and KREMPL-LAMBRECHT, L. (1959): Über die Einwirkung niederfrequenter elektrischer Felder auf das Wachstum pflanzlicher Organismen. Arch. Mikrobiol., 34: 204–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. KOLIN, A., BRILL, N. W. and BROBERG, P. J. (1959): Stimulation of irritable tissues by means of an alternating magnetic field. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), 102: 251–253.Google Scholar
  23. KREITHEN, M. L. (1974): Effects of magnetism, barometric pressure, and polarized light on the homing pigeon. Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. Dissertation abstracts International, 1975, 35, 3168-B. (University Microfilms No. 74-29,923).Google Scholar
  24. LLAURADO, J. G., SANCES, A. and BATTOCLETTI, J. H. (1974): Biologic and Clinical Effects of Low-Frequency Magnetic and Electric Fields. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  25. LUDWIG, H. W. (1971): Der Einfluss von elektromagnetischen Tiefstfrequenz-Wechselfeldern auf höhere Organismen. Biomed. Technik, 16: 67–72.Google Scholar
  26. MANTELL, B. (1975): Untersuchungen über die Wirkung eines magnetischen Wechselfeldes 50 Hz auf den Menschen. Inauguraldissertation, Medizinische Fakultät, Universität Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.Google Scholar
  27. MARR, J. J., RIVERS, W. K. and BURNS, C. P. (1973): The effect of low energy, extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation on operant behavior in the pigeon and the rat. Georgia Institute of Technology, Contract No. N00014-67-0159-0009, Office of Naval Research.Google Scholar
  28. MIKOLAJCZYK, H., ALLALOUF, D. and BER, A. (1968): The effect of simulated altitude (500 mm Hg) on urine acid mucopolysaccharides excretion in normal rats. Int. J. Biometeor., 12: 282–287.Google Scholar
  29. MOOS, W. D., CLARK, R. K., LEVAN, H. and MASON, H. C. (1970): Behavior and physiology of mice in a closely controlled environment. Int. J. Biometeor., 14: 133–154.Google Scholar
  30. PERSINGER, M. A. (1975): ELF and VLF Electromagnetic Field Effects. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York.Google Scholar
  31. PERSINGER, M. A., LUDWIG, H. W. and OSSENKOPP, K. P. (1973): Psychophysiological effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, a review. Percept. mot. Skills, 36: 1131–1159.Google Scholar
  32. PERSINGER, M. A., PERSINGER, M. A., OSSENKOPP, K. P. and GLAVIN, G. B. (1972): Behavioral changes in adult rats exposed to ELF magnetic fields. Int. J. Biometeor., 16: 155–162.Google Scholar
  33. REITER, R. (1970): Sind luftelektrische Grössen als Komponenten des Bioklimas in Betracht zu ziehen? Heiz., Lüft., Klima., Haustech., 21: 258–262, 279–285.Google Scholar
  34. SPROTT, R. L. (1967): Barometric pressure fluctuations. Effects on the activity of laboratory mice. Science, 157: 1206–1207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. TENG, H. C. and HEYER, H. E. (1955): The relationship between sudden changes in weather and the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction. Amer. Heart J., 49: 9–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. WERBER, M., SPARKS, R. M. and GOETZ, A. C. (1972): The behavior of weakly electric fish(Sternarchus albifrons) in magnetic fields. J. gen. Psychol. 86: 3–13.Google Scholar
  37. WEVER, R. (1968): Einfluss schwacher electro-magnetischer Felder auf die circadiane Periodik des Menschen. Naturwissenschaften, 55: 29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Swets & Zeitlinger B.V. 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. O. de Lorge
    • 1
  • J. D. Grissett
    • 1
  1. 1.Naval Aerospace Medical Research LaboratoryNaval Air StationPensacolaUSA

Personalised recommendations