Skip to main content
Log in

Changes of photosynthetic parameters in cucumber leaves under Cu, Cd, and Pb stress

  • Published:
Photosynthetica

Abstract

The effects of Cu, Cd, and Pb toxicity on photosynthesis in cucumber leaves (Cucumis sativus L.) were studied by the measurements of gas exchange characteristics, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence parameters, and Chl content. Concentrations of metals in sequence of 20 μM Cu, 20 and 50 μM Cd, and 1 000 μM Pb decreased the plant dry mass to 50–60 % after 10 d of treatment whereas 50 μM of Cu decreased it to 30 %. The content of Cd in leaves of plants treated with 50 μM Cd was three times higher than the contents of Cu and Pb after plant treatment with 50 μM Cu or 1 000 μM Pb. Hence Cd was transported to leaves much better than Cu and Pb. Nevertheless, the net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance in leaves treated with 50 μM Cu or Cd were similarly reduced. Thus, Cu was more toxic than Cd and Pb for photosynthesis in cucumber leaves. None of the investigated metals decreased internal CO2 concentrations. Also the effect of metals on potential efficiency of photosystem 2, PS2 (Fv/Fm) was negligible. The metal dependent reduction of PS2 quantum efficiency (ΦPS2) after plant adaptation in actinic irradiation was more noticeable. This could imply that reduced demand for ATP and NADPH in a dark phase of photosynthesis caused a down-regulation of PS2 photochemistry. Furthermore, in leaves of metal-treated plants the decrease in water percentage as well as lower contents of Chl and Fe were observed. Thus photosynthesis is not the main limiting factor for cucumber growth under Cu, Cd, or Pb stress.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

Abbreviations

C i :

internal CO2 concentration

DM:

dry mass

F0o:

minimal level of chlorophyll fluorescence

Fm, Fm‘:

maximum fluorescence of dark- and light-adapted leaves, respectively

Fv/Fm:

potential efficiency of PS2

g s :

stomatal conductance

P N :

net photosynthetic rate

PS:

photosystem

QA:

plastoquinone

ΦPS2:

light-adapted PS2 quantum efficiency

References

  • Arnon, D.I.: Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris.–Plant Physiol. 24: 1–15, 1949.

    Google Scholar 

  • Björkman, O., Demmig, B.: Photon yield of O2 evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics at 77 K among vascular plants of diverse origins.–Planta 170: 489–504, 1987.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burzyński, M.: Influence of pH on Cd and Cu uptake, distribution and their effect on nitrate reductase activity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedling roots.–Acta Physiol. Plant. 23: 201–206, 2001.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burzyński, M., Buczek, J.: Interaction between cadmium and molybdenum affecting the chlorophyll content and accumulation of some heavy metals in the second leaf of Cucumis sativus L.–Acta Physiol. Plant. 11: 137–145, 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burzyński, M., Buczek, J.: The influence of Cd, Pb, Cu and Ni on NO3 - uptake by cucumber seedlings I. Nitrate uptake and respiration of cucumber seedlings roots treated with Cd, Pb, Cu and Ni.–Acta Physiol. Plant. 16: 291–296, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ciscato, M., Valcke, R., Van Loven, K., Clijsters, H., Navari-Izzo, F.: Effect of in vivo copper treatment on the photosynthetic apparatus of two Triticum durum cultivars with different stress sensitivity.–Physiol. Plant. 100: 901–908, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cook, C.M., Kostidou, A., Vardaka, F., Lanaras, T.: Effects of copper on the growth, photosynthesis and nutrient concentrations of Phaseolus plants.–Photosynthetica 34: 179–193, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ernst, W.H.O., Verkleij, J.A.C., Schat, H.: Metal tolerance in plants.–Acta bot. neerland. 41: 229–248, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greger, M.: Metal availability and bioconcentration in plants.–In: Prasad, M.N.V., Hagemayer, J. (ed.): Heavy Metal Stress in Plants. From Molecules to Ecosystems. Pp. 1–29. Springer-Verlag, Berlin–Heidelberg–New York 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kitao, M., Lei, T.T., Koike, T.: Effects of manganese toxicity on photosynthesis of white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) seedlings.–Physiol. Plant. 101: 249–256, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krupa, Z., Baszyński, T.: Some aspects of heavy metals toxicity towards photosynthetic apparatus–direct and indirect effects on light and dark reactions.–Acta Physiol. Plant. 17: 177–190, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krupa, Z., Moniak, M.: The stage of leaf maturity implicates the response of the photosynthetic apparatus to cadmium toxicity.–Plant Sci. 138: 149–156, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krupa, Z., Siedlecka, A., Skórzynska-Polit, E., Maksymiec, W.: Heavy metal influence on the light phase of photosynthesis.–In: Prasad, M.N.V., Strzałka, K. (ed.): Physiology and Biochemistry of Metal Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants. Pp. 287–303. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Larsson, E.H., Bornman, J.F., Asp, H.: Influence of UV-B radiation and Cd2+ on chlorophyll fluorescence, growth and nutrient content in Brassica napus.–J. exp. Bot. 49: 1031–1039, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, J., Cunningham, B.A., Paulson, G.M., Liang, G.H., Moore, R.B.: Effects of cadmium on respiration rate and activities of several enzymes in soybean seedlings.–Physiol. Plant. 36: 4–6, 1976.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maksymiec, W., Baszyński, T.: Different susceptibility of runner bean plants to excess copper as a function of the growth stages of primary leaves.–J. Plant Physiol. 149: 217–221, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maksymiec, W., Russa, R., Urbanik-Sypniewska, T., Baszyński, T.: Changes in acyl lipid and fatty acid composition in thylakoids of copper non-tolerant spinach exposed to excess copper.–J. Plant Physiol. 140: 52–55, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maksymiec, W., Russa, R., Urbanik-Sypniewska, T., Baszyński, T.: Effect of excess Cu on the photosynthetic apparatus of runner bean leaves treated at two different growth stages.–Physiol. Plant. 91: 715–721, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  • Molas, J.: Changes of chloroplast ultrastructure and total chlorophyll concentration in cabbage leaves caused by excess of organic Ni(II) complex.–Environ. exp. Bot. 47: 115–126, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Myśliwa-Kurdziel, B., Prasad, M.N.V., Strzałka, K.: Heavy metal influence on the light phase of photosynthesis.–In: Prasad, M.N.V., Strzałka, K. (ed.): Physiology and Biochemistry of Metal Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants. Pp. 229–257. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Poschenrieder, C., Barcelo, J.: Water relation in heavy metals stressed plants.–In: Prasad, M.N.V., Hagemayer, J. (ed.): Heavy Metal Stress in Plants. From Molecules to Ecosystems. Pp. 207–231. Springer-Verlag, Berlin–Heidelberg–New York 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  • Poskuta, J.W., Wacławczyk-Lach, E.: In vivo responses of primary photochemistry of photosystem II and CO2 exchange in light and in darkness of tall fescue genotypes to lead toxicity.–Acta Physiol. Plant. 17: 233–240, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  • Prasad, M.N.V., Strzałka, K.: Impact of heavy metals on photosynthesis.–In: Prasad, M.N.V., Hagemayer, J. (ed.): Heavy Metal Stress in Plants. From Molecules to Ecosystems. Pp. 117–139. Springer-Verlag, Berlin–Heidelberg–New York 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  • Romanowska, E., Igamberdiev, A., Parys, E., Gardestron, P.: Stimulation of respiration by Pb2+ ions in detached leaves and mitochondria of C3 and C4 plants.–Physiol. Plant. 116: 148–154. 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sage, R.F., Reid, C.D.: Photosynthetic response mechanisms to environmental change in C3 plants.–In: Wilkinson, R.E. (ed.): Plant-Environment Interactions. Pp. 413–499. Marcel Dekker, New York–Basel–Hong Kong 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scardelis, S., Cook, C.M., Pantis, J.D., Lanaras, T.: Comparison of chlorophyll fluorescence and some heavy metal concentrations in Sonchus spp. and Taraxacum spp. along an urban pollution gradient.–Sci. total. Environ. 158: 157–164. 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  • Siedlecka, A., Krupa, Z.: Cd/Fe interaction in higher plants–its consequences for the photosynthetic apparatus.–Photosynthetica 36: 321–331, 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skórzyńska-Polit, E., Baszyński, T.: Diferences in sensitivity of the photosynthetic apparatus in Cd-stressed runner bean plants in relation to their age.–Plant Sci. 128: 11–21, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Subrahmanyam, D., Rathore, V.S.: Influence of manganase toxicity on photosynthesis in ricebean (Vigna umbellata) seedlings.–Photosynthetica 38: 449–453, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

This revised version was published online in March 2005 with corrections to the page numbers.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Burzyński, M., Kłobus, G. Changes of photosynthetic parameters in cucumber leaves under Cu, Cd, and Pb stress. Photosynthetica 42, 505–510 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/S11099-005-0005-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/S11099-005-0005-2

Additional key words

Navigation