, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 935–969 | Cite as

Different preparation methods and properties of nanostructured cellulose from various natural resources and residues: a review

  • Mehdi JonoobiEmail author
  • Reza Oladi
  • Yalda Davoudpour
  • Kristiina Oksman
  • Alain Dufresne
  • Yahya Hamzeh
  • Reza Davoodi
Review Paper


The main goal of this article is to provide an overview of recent research in the area of cellulose nanomaterial production from different sources. Due to their abundance, renewability, high strength and stiffness, eco-friendliness and low weight, numerous studies have been reported on the isolation of cellulose nanomaterials from different cellulosic sources and their use in high-performance applications. This report covers an introduction to the definition of nanocellulose as well as the methods used for isolation of nanomaterials (including nanocrystals and nanofibers, CNCs and CNFs, respectively) from various sources. The web-like network structure (CNFs) can be extracted from natural sources using mechanical processes, which include high-pressure homogenization, grinding and refining treatments. Also, rod-like CNCs can be isolated from sources such as wood, plant fibers, agricultural and industrial bioresidues, tunicates and bacterial cellulose using an acid hydrolysis process. Following this, the article focuses on the characterization methods, material properties and structures. Encyclopedic characteristics of CNFs and CNCs obtained from different source materials and/or studies are also included. The current report is a comprehensive review of the literature regarding nanocellulose isolation and demonstrates the potential of cellulose nanomaterials for a wide range of high-tech applications.


Cellulose Nanofibers Nanocrystals Morphology Crystallinity Thermal properties Chemical compositions 



The authors are grateful to the University of Tehran, Iran, for the financial support of this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehdi Jonoobi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Reza Oladi
    • 1
  • Yalda Davoudpour
    • 2
  • Kristiina Oksman
    • 3
  • Alain Dufresne
    • 4
  • Yahya Hamzeh
    • 1
  • Reza Davoodi
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Wood and Paper Science and Technology, Faculty of Natural ResourcesUniversity of TehranKarajIran
  2. 2.School of Industrial TechnologyUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  3. 3.Division of Materials Science, Composite Centre SwedenLuleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden
  4. 4.The International School of Paper, Print Media and Biomaterials (Pagora)Grenoble Institute of TechnologySaint Martin d’Hères CedexFrance
  5. 5.Iran Nanotechnology Initiative CouncilTehranIran

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