International Journal of Earth Sciences

, Volume 105, Issue 5, pp 1387–1415 | Cite as

A new tectono-sedimentary model for Cretaceous mixed nonmarine–marine oil-prone Komombo Rift, South Egypt

Original Paper


The Komombo Basin is a recently discovered mixed nonmarine–marine, petroliferous basin of Cretaceous age in South Egypt. It is an asymmetrical half graben, synchronous with the Neothys opening and filled with up to 4 km of continental to open marine strata ranging from Early to Late Cretaceous. Despite its great relevance, no detailed sedimentological study concerning this basin has been carried out to date. Here, we present an integrated approach to the borehole and core data, as well as unique outcrop sections to construct a new detailed sedimentological interpretation on depositional systems, controls on basin evolution, basin configuration and regional tectonic setting. Seven depositional systems were recognized: (I) a fluvial fan system, (II) a braidplain system, (III) a siliciclastic lacustrine system, (IV) a lacustrine/lagoonal system, (V) a fluvial-estuarine system, (VI) a tidally affected delta, and (VII) an open marine system. The Komombo Basin evolution can be compartmentalized into three main rifting phases: the Berriasian–Early Barremian, Late Barremian, and Aptian–Albian. The first and third rifting phases are comparable with the rifting phases reported for several basins in North and Central Africa. The second rifting phase represents a transitional event between the other two phases. The first three depositional systems consist mainly of continental siliciclastics and are dominant in the Berriasian–Early Barremian and Late Barremian rifting phases. The lacustrine/lagoon and fluvial-estuarine systems correspond to the Aptian–Albian rifting phase, while the Campanian–Maastrichtian open-shelf deposits represents the post-rift stage.


Cretaceous Nonmarine Rift Komombo Egypt 



The author is grateful to SeaDragon-Egypt for the permission to use their data and to publish this paper. Prof. M. Darwish and Prof. A. El Manawi (Cairo University) and Eng. Alaa Ghoneimy (General Manager of south asset, SeaDragon-Egypt) are acknowledged for their critical and thorough reviews and suggestions. Dr. Ray Smith (CSIRO, Australia) is thanked for reviewing and editing the manuscript. The author is also grateful to the two reviewers: Prof. Thomas Voigt and Prof. Jochen Kuss, for their critical reading that improved the paper. The author also thanks Editor Prof. Wolf-Christian Dullo for handling the article for International Journal of Earth Sciences.


  1. Abu El Ella N (2006) Biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of Komombo-1, Komombo-2, Komombo-3, Nuqra-1 and Kharit-1 Wells, Upper Egypt, Earth Resources Exploration (EREX). Unpublished internal report, Cairo, 26 pGoogle Scholar
  2. Abu El Ella N (2011) Biostratigraphic studies for the AlBaraka oil field, Upper Egypt, Earth Resources Exploration (EREX). Unpublished internal report, Cairo, 250 pGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida RP, Janikian L, Fragoso-Cesar ARS, Marconato A (2009) Evolution of a rift basin dominated by subaerial deposits: the Guaritas Rift, Early Cambrian, Southern Brazil. Sed Geol 217:30–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Archangelsky S, Gamerro JC (1967a) Pollen grains found in coniferous cones from the Lower Cretaceous of Patagonia (Argentina). Rev Palaeobot Palynol 1:179–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Archangelsky S, Gamerro JC (1967b) Spore and pollen types of the Lower Cretaceous in Patagonia (Argentina). Rev Palaeobot Palynol 1:211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashley GM (1990) Classification of large-scale subaqueous bedforms: a new look at an old problem. J Sediment Petrol 60:160–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Awad MZ (1994) Stratigraphic, palynological and palaeoecological studies in the east-central Sudan (Khartoum and Kosti Basins), Late Jurassic to Mid-Tertiary. Berl Geowiss Abh 161:1–163Google Scholar
  8. Ayyad MH, Darwish M (1996) Syrian Arc structures: a unifying model of inverted basins and hydrocarbon occurrences in North Egypt. Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation Seminar, Cairo, 19 pGoogle Scholar
  9. Batten DJ, Uwins PJR (1985) Early-Late Cretaceous (Aptian–Cenomanian) Palynomorphs. J Br Micropalaeontol Soc 4(1):151–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bayoumi AI, Lotfy HI (1989) Modes of structural evolution of Abu Gharadig Basin, Western Desert of Egypt, as deduced from seismic data. J Afr Earth Sc 9:273–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Birkeland PW (1984) Soils and geomorphology. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Blair TC (1987) Tectonic and Hydrologic controls on cyclic alluvial fan, fluvial, and lacustrine rift-basin sedimentation, Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Todos Santos Formation, Chiapas, Mexico. J Sediment Petrol 57:845–862Google Scholar
  13. Boltenhagen E (1977) Microplancton du crétacé supérieur du Gabon. Cah Paleontol 4:1–150Google Scholar
  14. Bosworth W (1992) Mesozoic and early Tertiary rift tectonics in East Africa. Tectonophysics 209:115–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bosworth W, El-Hawat AS, Helgeson DA, Burke K (2008) Cyrenaican “shock absorber” and associated inversion strain shadow in the collision zone of northeast Africa. Geology 36:695–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brenner GJ (1968) Middle Cretaceous spores and from northeastern Peru. Pollen Spores 10:341–382Google Scholar
  17. Bridges PH, Leeder MR (1976) Sedimentary model for intertidal mudflat channels, with examples from the Solway Firth, Scotland. Sedimentology 23:533–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bumby AJ, Guiraud R (2005) The geodynamic setting of the Phanerozoic basins of Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 43:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burke KC, Dewey JF (1974) Two plates in Africa during the Cretaceous? Nature 249:313–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cain SA, Mountney NP (2009) Spatial and temporal evolution of a terminal fluvial fan system: the Permian Organ Rock Formation, South-east Utah, USA. Sedimentology 56:1774–1800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Choi KS, Dalrymple RW, Chun SS, Kim SP (2004) Sedimentology of modern inclined heterolithic stratification (IHS) in the macrotidal Han River delta, Korea. J Sediment Res 74:677–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crossley R (1984) Controls of sedimentation in the Malawi rift valley, central Africa. Sed Geol 40:33–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dalrymple RW (1992) Tidal depositional systems. In: Walker RG, James NP (eds) Facies models and sea level changes. Geological Association of Canada, St. John’s, pp 195–218Google Scholar
  24. Dalrymple RW, Choi K (2007) Morphologic and facies trends through the fluvial–marine transition in tide-dominated depositional systems: a schematic framework for environmental and sequence-stratigraphic interpretation. Earth Sci Rev 81:135–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dalrymple RW, Baker EK, Harris PT, Hughes M (2003) Sedimentology and stratigraphy of a tide-dominated, foreland-basin delta (Fly River, Papua New Guinea). In: Sidi FH, Nummedal D, Imbert P, Darman H, Posamentier HW (eds) Tropical deltas of Southeast Asia—sedimentology, stratigraphy and petroleum geology. SEPM Special Publication 76, pp 147–173Google Scholar
  26. De Mowbray T (1983) The genesis of lateral accretion deposits in recent intertidal rnudflat channels, Solway Firth, Scotland. Sedimentology 30:425–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dolson JC, Shann MV, Matbouly S, Harwood C, Rashed R, Hammouda H (2001) The petroleum potential of Egypt. In: MW Downey, JC Threet, WA Morgan (eds) Petroleum provinces of the 21st century, Tulsa, Oklahoma. AAPG Memoir, pp 453–482Google Scholar
  28. Dolson JC, Atta M, Blanchard D, Sehim A, Villinski J, Loutit T, Romine K (2014) Egypt’s future petroleum resources: a revised look into the 21st century. In: Marlow L, Kendall C, Yose L (eds) Petroleum systems of the Tethyan region. AAPG Memoir 106, pp 143–178Google Scholar
  29. Duchaufour P (1982) Pedology. Allen and Unwin, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eberth DA (1996) Origin and significance of mud-filled incised valleys (Upper Cretaceous) in southern Alberta, Canada. Sedimentology 43:459–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. El Beialy SY, Al Hitmi H (1994) Micropaleontology and palynology of the Lower and Middle Cretaceous Thamama and Wasia groups, DK-C well, Dukhan Oil Field, Western Qatar. Sci Géol Bull 47(1–4):67–95Google Scholar
  32. El Emam A, Bishop D, Dunderale I (1990) The hydrocarbon potential of the west Gindi area, Western Desert, Egypt. In: 10th Egyptian General Petroleum Cooperation, exploration and production seminar, Cairo, 14 pGoogle Scholar
  33. Exploration Staff of the Arabian Gulf Oil Company (1980) Geology of a stratigraphic giant-the Messlah oil field. In: Salem MJ, Busrewil MT (eds) The geology of Libya, vol 2. Academic Press, London, pp 521–538Google Scholar
  34. Fathy M, Salvadori L, Roberts G, Gouda MA (2010) Komombo: a new oil province in Upper Egypt (abst.). AAPG GEO 2012 Middle EastGoogle Scholar
  35. Fielding CR (1987) Coal depositional models for deltaic and alluvial plain sequences. Geology 15:661–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fischbein SA, Joeckel RM, Fielding CR (2009) Fluvial-estuarine reinterpretation of large, isolated sandstone bodies in epicontinental cyclothems, Upper Pennsylvanian, northern Midcontinent, USA, and their significance for understanding late Paleozoic sea-level fluctuations. Sed Geol 216:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frostick LE, Reid I (1987) Tectonic controls of desert sediments in rift basins ancient and modern. In: Frostick LE, Reid I (eds) Desert sediments: ancient and modern. Geological Society Special Publication 35, pp 53–68Google Scholar
  38. Gawthorpe RL, Leeder MR (2000) Tectono-sedimentary evolution of active extensional basins. Basin Res 12:195–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gawthorpe RL, Fraser AJ, Collier REL (1994) Sequence stratigraphy in active extensional basins: implications for the interpretation of ancient basin-fills. Mar Pet Geol 11:642–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Genik GJ (1992) Regional framework, structural and petroleum aspects of rift basins in Niger, Chad and the Central African Republic (C.A.R.). Tectonophysics 213:169–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gübeli AA, Hochuli PA, Wildi W (1984) Lower Cretaceous turbiditic sediments from the Rif chain (northern Morocco)-palynology, strattgraphy and palaeogeographic setting. Geol Rundsch 73:1081–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Guiraud R (1998) Mesozoic rifting and basin inversion along the northern African Tethyan margin: an overview. In: Macgregor DS et al (eds) Petroleum geology of North Africa. Geological Society of London Special Publication 132, pp 217–230Google Scholar
  43. Guiraud R, Bellion Y (1995) Late Carboniferous to recent geodynamic evolution of the West Gondwanian cratonic Tethyan margins. In: Nairn A, Ricou LE, Vrielynck B, Dercourt J (eds) The ocean basins and margins 8, the Tethys Ocean. Plenum Press, New York, pp 101–124Google Scholar
  44. Guiraud R, Bosworth W (1997) Senonian basin inversion and rejuvenation of rifting in Africa and Arabia: synthesis and implications to platescale tectonics. Tectonophysics 282:39–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Guiraud R, Bosworth W (1999) Phanerozoic geodynamic evolution of northeastern Africa and the northwestern Arabian platform. Tectonophysics 315:73–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Guiraud R, Maurin JC (1991) Le rifting en Afrique au Crétacé inférieur: synthèse structurale, mise en évidence de deux étapes dans la genése des bassins, relations avec les ouvertures océaniques périafricaines. Bull Soc Géol Fr 162:811–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Guiraud R, Maurin JC (1992) Early Cretaceous rifts of Western and Central Africa: an overview. Tectonophysics 213:153–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Guiraud R, Bosworth W, Thierry J, Delplanque A (2005) Phanerozoic geological evolution of Northern and Central Africa: an overview. In: Catuneanu O et al (eds) Phanerozoic evolution of Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 43:83–143Google Scholar
  49. Herngreen GFW (1975) Palynology of middle and upper Cretaceous strata in Brazil. Mededelingen/Rijks Geologische Dienst, NS 26(3):39–91Google Scholar
  50. Ibrahim MIA (1996) Aptian-Turonian palynology of the Ghazalat-1 well (GTX-1), Qattara Depression, Egypt. Rev Paleobot Palynol 94:137–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ibrahim MIA, Abdel-Kireem MR (1997) Late Cretaceous palynofloras and foraminifera from Ain El-Wadi area, Farafra Oasis, Egypt. Cretac Res 18:633–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ito M, Matsukawa M, Saito T, Nichols ND (2006) Facies architecture and paleohydrology of a synrift succession in the Early Cretaceous Choyr Basin, southeastern Mongolia. Sed Geol 27:226–240Google Scholar
  53. Jain KP, Millepied P (1973) Cretaceous microplankton from Senegal Basin, N. W. Africa. 1. Some new genera species and combinations of dinoflagellates. The. Palaeobotanist 20(1):22–32Google Scholar
  54. Jenkins DA (1990) North and central Sinai. In: Said R (ed) Geology of Egypt. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 361–380Google Scholar
  55. Jo HR, Rhee CW, Chough SK (1997) Distinctive characteristics of a streamflow-dominated alluvial fan deposit: Sanghori area, Kyongsang Basin (Early Cretaceous), southeastern Korea. Sed Geol 110:51–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kamel H (1990) Gravity map. In: Said R (ed) Geology of Egypt. A.A. Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam, pp 45–50Google Scholar
  57. Kampf N, Schwertmann U (1982) Goethite and hematite in a climosequence in southern Brazil and their application in classification of kaolinitic soils. Geoderma 29:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kaska HV (1989) A spore and pollen zonation of Early Cretaceous to Tertiary nonmarine sediments of central Sudan. Palynology 13:79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Klein GD (1971) A sedimentary model for determining paleotidal range. Geol Soc Am Bull 82:2585–2592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Klitzsch EH, Squyres CH (1990) Paleozoic and Mesozoic Geological history of Northeastern Africa based on new interpretation of Nubian strata. AAPG Bull 74(8):1203–1211Google Scholar
  61. Kusznir NJ, Marsden G, Egan SS (1991) A flexural cantilever simple shear/pure shear model of continental lithosphere extension: applications to the Jeanne d’Arc basin, Grand Banks, and Viking Graben, North Sea. In: Roberts AM, Yielding G, Freeman B (eds) The geometry of normal faults. Geological Society Special Publication 56, pp 41–60Google Scholar
  62. Lambiase JJ (1990) A model for tectonic control of lacustrine stratigraphic sequences in continental rift basins. In: BJ Katz (ed) Lacustrine basin exploration: case studies and modern analogs: AAPG Memoir 50, pp 265–276Google Scholar
  63. Lawal O, Moullade M(1986) Palynological biostratigraphy of Cretaceous sediments in the Upper Benue Basin, N.E. Nigeria (1). Revue de Micropaléontologie 29:61–83Google Scholar
  64. Leeder MR (1995) Continental rifts and proto-oceanic rift troughs. In: Busby CJ, Ingersoll RV (eds) Tectonics of sedimentary basins. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 119–148Google Scholar
  65. Leeder MR, Gawthorpe RL (1987) Sedimentary models for extensional tilt-block/half-graben basin. In: Coward MP, Dewey JF, Hancock PL (eds) Continental extensional tectonics. Geological Society Special Publication 28, pp 139–152Google Scholar
  66. Lister GS, Etheridge MA, Symonds PA (1986) Detachment faulting and the evolution of passive continental margins. Geology 14:246–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mahmoud MS, Deaf AS (2007) Cretaceous palynology (spores, pollen and dinoflagellate cysts) of the Siqeifa 1-x borehole, northern Egypt. Riv Ital Paleontol Stratigr 113:203–221Google Scholar
  68. Maizels J (1993) Lithofacies variations within sandur deposits: the role of runoff regime, flow dynamics and sediment supply characteristics. Sed Geol 85:299–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Malloy RE (1972) An Upper Cretaceous dinoflagellate cyst lineage from Gabon, West Africa. Geosci Man 4:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mángano MG, Buatois LA, Aceñolaza GF (1996a) Trace fossils and sedimentary facies from an Early Ordovician tide-dominated shelf (Santa Rosita Formation, northwest Argentina)—implications for ichnofacies models of shallow marine successions. Ichnos 5:53–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mángano MG, Buatois LA, Maples CG, West R (1996b) Trace fossils from an Upper Carboniferous tidal shoreline (Stull Shale Member of eastern Kansas). In: 30th international geological congress, Beijing, Abstract 2, p 133Google Scholar
  72. Maurin JC, Guiraud R (1990) Relationships between tectonics and sedimentation in the Barremo-Aptian intracontinental basins of Northern Cameroon. In: Kogbe CA, Lang J (eds) African continental phanerozoic sediments. J Afr Earth Sci 10:331–340Google Scholar
  73. McHargue TR, Heidrick TL, Livingston JE (1992) Tectonostratigraphic development of the interior Sudan rifts, Central Africa. In: Ziegler PA (eds) Geodynamics of rifting, vol II. Case history studies on rifts: North and South America and Africa. Tectonophysics 213:187–202Google Scholar
  74. McKenzie D (1978) Some remarks on the development of sedimentary basins. Earth Planet Sci Lett 40:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mohsen SA (1992) Cretaceous plant microfossils from the subsurface of Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. J Afr Earth Sci 14(4):567–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Morley CK (1989) Extension, detachments, and sedimentation in continental rifts (with particular reference to East Africa). Tectonics 8:1175–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mossop GD, Flach PD (1983) Deep channel sedimentation in the Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation, Athabasca Oil sands, Alberta. Sedimentology 30:493–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Moustafa AR, Khalil MH (1990) Structural characteristics and tectonic evolution of north Sinai fold belts. In: Said R (ed) Geology of Egypt. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 381–389Google Scholar
  79. Moustafa AR, El-Badrawy R, Gibali H (1998) Pervasive E-ENE oriented faults in northern Egypt and their effect on the development and inversion of prolific sedimentary basins. In: Proceedings of the of 14th petroleum conference, vol 1. Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation, Cairo, pp 51–67Google Scholar
  80. Nagati M (1986) Possible Mesozoic rifts in Upper Egypt: an analogy with the geology of Yemen-Somalia rift basins. In: Proceeding of the 8th petroleum exploration conference, vol 2. Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation, Cairo, pp 205–231Google Scholar
  81. Nio SD, Yang CS (1991) Diagnostic attributes of clastic tidal deposits: a review. In: Smith DG, Reinson GE, Zaitlin BA, Rahmani RA (eds) Clastic tidal sedimentology. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 16, pp 3–28Google Scholar
  82. Prosser S (1993) Rift-related linked depositional systems and their seismic expression. In: Wouldiams GD, Dobb A (eds) Tectonics and seismic sequence stratigraphy. Geological Society Special Publication 71, pp 35–66Google Scholar
  83. Rauscher R, Doubinger J (1982) Les dinokystesdu Maestrichtien Phosphate Maroc. Sci Géol Bull 35(3):97–116Google Scholar
  84. Ravnås R, Steel RJ (1998) Architecture of Marine Rift-Basin Successions. AAPG Bull 82:110–146Google Scholar
  85. Regali MSP (1989) Evoluçao da paleoflora no Cretaceo das margens equatorial de nordeste do Brasil. Rev Esc Minas 42:17–33Google Scholar
  86. Reineck HE (1958) Longitudinale schrägschicht in Watt. Geol Rundsch 47:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Reineck HE, Wunderlich F (1968) Classification and origin of flaser and lenticular bedding. Sedimentology 11:99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Reyre Y (1973) Palynologie du Mésozoique Saharien. Mèmoires, Museum National Historie Naturelle, N. S., 27:1–284Google Scholar
  89. Rodriguez P (2015) The Mesozoic rifting of Alamein basin (Western Desert, Egypt): 3D evidence of transtension in the southern Tethyan margin. European Regional Conference and Exhibition, Lisbon, Portugal. Abstract. AAPG Search and Discovery Article #90226.
  90. Rosendahl BR (1987) Architecture of continental rifts with special reference to east Africa. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci Lett 15:445–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Said R (1990) Mesozoic. In: Said R (ed) Geology of Egypt. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 451–486Google Scholar
  92. Schrank E (1987) Paleozoic and Mesozoic palynomorphs from northeast Africa (Egypt and Sudan) with special reference to Late Cretaceous pollen and dinoflagellates. Berl Geowiss Abh Reihe A 75(1):249–310Google Scholar
  93. Schrank E (1991) Mesozoic palynology and continental sediments in NE Africa (Egypt and Sudan)—a review. J Afr Earth Sci 12:363–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schrank E (1992) Nonmarine Cretaceous correlations in Egypt and northern Sudan: palynological and palaeobotanical evidence. Cretac Res 13:351–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schrank E, Ibrahim MIA (1995) Cretaceous (Aptian–Maastrichtian) palynology of foraminifera-dated wells (KRM-1, AG-18) in northwestern, Egypt, vol 177. Berliner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, pp 1–44Google Scholar
  96. Schrank E, Mahmoud MS (1998) Palynology (pollen, spores and dinoflagellates) and Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Dakhla Oasis, Central Egypt. J Afr Earth Sc 26:167–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schull TJ (1988) Rift basins of interior Sudan, Petroleum exploration and discovery. AAPG Bull 27:1128–1142Google Scholar
  98. Sehim A (1993) Cretaceous tectonics in Egypt. Egypt J Geol 37:335–372Google Scholar
  99. Smith DG (1987) Meandering river point bar lithofacies models: modern and ancient examples compared. In: Ethridge FG, Flores RM, Harvey MD (eds) Recent developments in fluvial sedimentology. SEPM Special Publication 39, pp 83–91Google Scholar
  100. Smith DG (1988) Modern point bar deposits analogous to the Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta, Canada. In: de Boer PL, van Gelder A, Nio SD (eds) Tide-influenced sedimentary environments and facies. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, pp 417–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Smith DG, Reinson GE, Zaitlin BA, Rahmani RA (1991) Clastic tidal sedimentology. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 16, 387 ppGoogle Scholar
  102. Steel RJ (1988) Coarsening-upward and skewed fan bodies: symptoms of strike-slip and transfer fault movement in sedimentary basins. In: Nemec W, Steel RJ (eds) Fan deltas: sedimentology and tectonic settings. Blackie, Glasgow, pp 75–83Google Scholar
  103. Surlyk F (1978) Submarine fan sedimentation along fault scarps on tilted fault blocks (Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary, East Greenland): Grønlands Geologiske Undersøgelse. Bulletin 128:1–108Google Scholar
  104. Surlyk F (1989) Mid-Mesozoic synrift turbidite systems: controls and predictions. In: Collinson JD (ed) Correlation in hydrocarbon exploration. Norwegian Petroleum Society, pp 231–241Google Scholar
  105. Taha MA (1992) Mesozoic rift basins in Egypt: their southern extension and impact on future exploration. In: Abdine S (ed) Proceedings of the 11th petroleum exploration and production conference. Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation, Cairo, Egypt, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  106. Thomas RD, Smith DG, Wood JM, Visser J, Calverly-Range EA, Koster EH (1987) Inclined heteolithic stratification terminology; description, interpretation and significance. Sed Geol 53:123–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Todd SP (1989) Stream-driven, high-density gravelly traction carpets: possible deposits in the Trabeg conglomerate Formation, SW Ireland and theoretical considerations of their origin. Sedimentology 36:513–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Tooth S (2000a) Downstream changes in dryland river channels: the Northern Plains of arid central Australia. Geomorphology 34:33–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tooth S (2000b) Process, form and change in dryland rivers: a review of recent research. Earth Sci Rev 51:67–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tooth S (2005) Splay formation along the lower reaches of ephemeral rivers on the Northern Plains of central Australia. J Sediment Res 75:636–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Van den Berg JH, Boersma JR, van Gelder A (2007) Diagnostic sedimentary structures of the fluvial-tidal transition zone—evidence from deposits of the Rhine and Meuse. Neth J Geosci 86:287–306Google Scholar
  112. Visser MJ (1980) Neap-spring cycles reflected in Holocene subtidal large-scale bedform deposits: a preliminary note. Geology 8:543–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wernicke B (1985) Uniform sense normal simple shear of the continental lithosphere. Can J Earth Sci 22:108–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wood B, Zakariya A, Hady AA (2012) Resetting the geological framework of the Al Baraka field, Komombo Concession, Upper Egypt. Abstract. In: 10th Middle East Geosciences Conference and Exhibition. Manama, Bahrain. AAPG Search and Discovery Article #90141.
  115. Wycisk P (1994) Correlation of the major late Jurassic–early Tertiary low- and highstand cycles of south-west Egypt and north-west Sudan. Geol Rundsch 83:759–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zahran H, Abu Elyazid K, Mohamad M (2011) Beni Suef Basin: the key for exploration future success in Upper Egypt. AAPG annual convention and exhibition, Houston, USA. Search and discovery article #10351.
  117. Ziegler PA (1992) Geodynamics of rifting and implications for hydrocarbon habitat. Tectonophysics 215:221–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceCairo UniversityGizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations