The Influence of the urban environment on the composition of terpenes in the needles of Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold)
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The composition of terpenoid substances in needles of Pinus nigra Arnold with respect to air pollution is discussed. Trees grown in the urban environment of the city of Nitra, which is contaminated by immissions, and trees grown in the relatively clean environment of the Mlyňany Arboretum SAS were investigated. The urban environment caused a change in the species composition and the content of terpenes. In the city of Nitra needles of P. nigra contained a smaller number of terpenoid substances (12 terpenes) in comparison with the Arboretum (15 terpenes). At Nitra P. nigra contained four terpenes with a relative portion above 1% and at the Mlyňany Arboretum P. nigra needles contained six terpenes above 1%. At the polluted site citral, eugenol, and bisabolol are completely missing in the terpene pattern of needles and myrcene, carvone and alfa-humulene were notably lower. The decrease of the alfa-pinene content and the increase of the beta-pinene content in needles from Nitra significantly lowered the ratio of alfa-pinene to beta-pinene from 2.80 to 0.86.
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