UV-B induction of flavonoid biosynthesis in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L . ) seedlings
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Cultivation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings under simulated global radiation including the UV-B band (280 – 320 nm; 220 mW m–2 UV-BBE) led to increased formation of the diacylated flavonol glucosides 3″,6″-di-p-coumaroyl-astragalin and 3″,6″-di-p-coumaroyl-isoquercitrin in primary and cotyledonary needles, respectively. 3″,6″-Di-p-coumaroyl-astragalin was also the main constitutive diacylated flavonol glucoside in both needle types. This compound predominantly accumulated in primary needles upon UV-B irradiation, and reached concentrations of 2.4 μmol g–1 fresh weight (fw). Its concentration was only weakly affected in cotyledonary needles. 3″,6″-Di-p-coumaroyl-isoquercitrin was mainly induced in cotyledonary needles with maximum concentrations of 0.8 to 0.9 μmol g–1 fw, but was virtually unaffected in primary needles under the same irradiation conditions. Pulse labelling with L-(U-14C)phenylalanine revealed that these metabolites were formed de novo. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 22.214.171.124) and chalcone synthase (EC 126.96.36.199) were only slightly induced by the UV-B treatment. The results described here represent the first report on UV-B-induced flavonoid biosynthesis in a conifer species.
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