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Enclaves, neighbourhood effects and employment outcomes: Ethnic minorities in England and Wales

Abstract.

Ethnic minorities in England and Wales are spatially concentrated in relatively-deprived urban areas. Both geographic clustering and the economic characteristics of ethnically-concentrated neighbourhoods can impact upon the opportunities and constraints facing residents of such areas. This paper explores the relationship between the existence of enclaves and the employment prospects of ethnic minorities in England and Wales. It is shown that there is considerable spatial variation in employment outcomes. There is a lower incidence of self-employment in more ethnically-concentrated urban areas, which contradicts the view of ethnic entrepreneurship as an enclave phenomenon. Unemployment rates are also higher for minorities living in more concentrated areas. Enclaves in England and Wales do not appear to offer many economic benefits to minority individuals.

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Received: 31 December 1999/Accepted: 27 November 2000

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Clark, K., Drinkwater, S. Enclaves, neighbourhood effects and employment outcomes: Ethnic minorities in England and Wales. J Popul Econ 15, 5–29 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00003839

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  • JEL classification: J23, J7
  • Key words: Ethnic minorities, enclaves, employment