Each patient has the right of a dedicated pain therapy according to the state of the art. However an efficient pain therapy is not possible without knowing the cause of pain. In most posttraumatic pain situations peripheral nociceptors are activated and normal afferences are conducted via an intact nociceptive system. In contrast, neuropathic pain pain is caused by lesions of the nervous system itself. Mechanisms of central sensibilization and involvement of the sympathetic nervous system may lead to chronification of such pain conditions. The therapeutic regime of nociceptive and neuropathic pain is demonstrated by algorithms of treatment modalities. Apart from classic non-opioid analgesics, co-analgesics and opioids have an important status in chronic pain management as well. Prescription of these substances has to follow strictly defined standards of pain therapy. Blockades with local anaesthetics as mono-therapy of chronic pain are obsolete. In posttraumatic pain, however, a certain number of adjuvant blockades or infiltrations of triggerpoints may be helpful. The exeptional place of sympathetic blockades are in diagnosis and therapy of sympathetic maintained pain (SMP).