We further advance the study of the notion of computational complexity for 2d CFTs based on a gate set built out of conformal symmetry transformations. Previously, it was shown that by choosing a suitable cost function, the resulting complexity functional is equivalent to geometric (group) actions on coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group, up to a term that originates from the central extension. We show that this term can be recovered by modifying the cost function, making the equivalence exact. Moreover, we generalize our approach to Kac-Moody symmetry groups, finding again an exact equivalence between complexity functionals and geometric actions. We then determine the optimal circuits for these complexity measures and calculate the corresponding costs for several examples of optimal transformations. In the Virasoro case, we find that for all choices of reference state except for the vacuum state, the complexity only measures the cost associated to phase changes, while assigning zero cost to the non-phase changing part of the transformation. For Kac-Moody groups in contrast, there do exist non-trivial optimal transformations beyond phase changes that contribute to the complexity, yielding a finite gauge invariant result. Moreover, we also show that our Virasoro complexity proposal is equivalent to the on-shell value of the Liouville action, which is a complexity functional proposed in the context of path integral optimization. This equivalence provides an interpretation for the path integral optimization proposal in terms of a gate set and reference state. Finally, we further develop a new proposal for a complexity definition for the Virasoro group that measures the cost associated to non-trivial transformations beyond phase changes. This proposal is based on a cost function given by a metric on the Lie group of conformal transformations. The minimization of the corresponding complexity functional is achieved using the Euler-Arnold method yielding the Korteweg-de Vries equation as equation of motion.
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ArXiv ePrint: 2004.03619
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Erdmenger, J., Gerbershagen, M. & Weigel, AL. Complexity measures from geometric actions onVirasoro and Kac-Moody orbits. J. High Energ. Phys. 2020, 3 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2020)003
- AdS-CFT Correspondence
- Gauge-gravity correspondence