Skip to main content

Experimental targets for photon couplings of the QCD axion

A preprint version of the article is available at arXiv.

Abstract

The QCD axion’s coupling to photons is often assumed to lie in a narrow band as a function of the axion mass. We demonstrate that several simple mechanisms, in addition to the photophilic clockwork axion already in the literature, can significantly extend the allowed range of couplings. Some mechanisms we present generalize the KNP alignment scenario, widely studied as a model of inflation, to the phenomenology of a QCD axion. In particular we present KSVZ-like realizations of two-axion KNP alignment and of the clockwork mechanism. Such a “confinement tower” realization of clockwork may prove useful in a variety of model-building contexts. We also show that kinetic mixing of the QCD axion with a lighter axion-like particle can dramatically alter the QCD axion’s coupling to photons, differing from the other models we present by allowing non-quantized couplings. The simple models that we present fully cover the range of axion-photon couplings that could be probed by experiments. They motivate growing axion detection efforts over a wide space of masses and couplings.

References

  1. R.D. Peccei and H.R. Quinn, Constraints Imposed by CP Conservation in the Presence of Instantons, Phys. Rev. D 16 (1977) 1791 [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  2. R.D. Peccei and H.R. Quinn, CP Conservation in the Presence of Instantons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38 (1977) 1440 [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. F. Wilczek, Problem of Strong p and t Invariance in the Presence of Instantons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40 (1978) 279 [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. S. Weinberg, A New Light Boson?, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40 (1978) 223 [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. J.E. Kim, Weak Interaction Singlet and Strong CP Invariance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43 (1979) 103 [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. M.A. Shifman, A.I. Vainshtein and V.I. Zakharov, Can Confinement Ensure Natural CP Invariance of Strong Interactions?, Nucl. Phys. B 166 (1980) 493 [INSPIRE].

  7. A.R. Zhitnitsky, On Possible Suppression of the Axion Hadron Interactions (in Russian), Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 31 (1980) 260 [INSPIRE].

  8. M. Dine, W. Fischler and M. Srednicki, A Simple Solution to the Strong CP Problem with a Harmless Axion, Phys. Lett. B 104 (1981) 199 [INSPIRE].

  9. J. Preskill, M.B. Wise and F. Wilczek, Cosmology of the Invisible Axion, Phys. Lett. B 120 (1983) 127 [INSPIRE].

  10. M. Dine and W. Fischler, The Not So Harmless Axion, Phys. Lett. B 120 (1983) 137 [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. L.F. Abbott and P. Sikivie, A Cosmological Bound on the Invisible Axion, Phys. Lett. B 120 (1983) 133 [INSPIRE].

  12. ADMX collaboration, S.J. Asztalos et al., A SQUID-based microwave cavity search for dark-matter axions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2010) 041301 [arXiv:0910.5914] [INSPIRE].

  13. P.W. Graham and S. Rajendran, New Observables for Direct Detection of Axion Dark Matter, Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013) 035023 [arXiv:1306.6088] [INSPIRE].

  14. E. Armengaud et al., Conceptual Design of the International Axion Observatory (IAXO), 2014 JINST 9 T05002 [arXiv:1401.3233] [INSPIRE].

  15. D. Horns, J. Jaeckel, A. Lindner, A. Lobanov, J. Redondo and A. Ringwald, Searching for WISPy Cold Dark Matter with a Dish Antenna, JCAP 04 (2013) 016 [arXiv:1212.2970] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. D. Budker, P.W. Graham, M. Ledbetter, S. Rajendran and A. Sushkov, Proposal for a Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiment (CASPEr), Phys. Rev. X 4 (2014) 021030 [arXiv:1306.6089] [INSPIRE].

  17. A. Arvanitaki and A.A. Geraci, Resonantly Detecting Axion-Mediated Forces with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (2014) 161801 [arXiv:1403.1290] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Y. Kahn, B.R. Safdi and J. Thaler, Broadband and Resonant Approaches to Axion Dark Matter Detection, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117 (2016) 141801 [arXiv:1602.01086] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. E. Witten, Dyons of Charge eθ/2π, Phys. Lett. B 86 (1979) 283 [INSPIRE].

  20. E. Witten, Large-N Chiral Dynamics, Annals Phys. 128 (1980) 363 [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. E. Witten, Theta dependence in the large-N limit of four-dimensional gauge theories, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 (1998) 2862 [hep-th/9807109] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  22. D. Tong, Line Operators in the Standard Model, JHEP 07 (2017) 104 [arXiv:1705.01853] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. D.B. Kaplan, Opening the Axion Window, Nucl. Phys. B 260 (1985) 215 [INSPIRE].

  24. M. Srednicki, Axion Couplings to Matter. 1. CP Conserving Parts, Nucl. Phys. B 260 (1985) 689 [INSPIRE].

  25. H. Georgi, D.B. Kaplan and L. Randall, Manifesting the Invisible Axion at Low-energies, Phys. Lett. B 169 (1986) 73 [INSPIRE].

  26. P. Svrček and E. Witten, Axions In String Theory, JHEP 06 (2006) 051 [hep-th/0605206] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. G. Grilli di Cortona, E. Hardy, J. Pardo Vega and G. Villadoro, The QCD axion, precisely, JHEP 01 (2016) 034 [arXiv:1511.02867] [INSPIRE].

  28. G.F. Giudice, R. Rattazzi and A. Strumia, Unificaxion, Phys. Lett. B 715 (2012) 142 [arXiv:1204.5465] [INSPIRE].

  29. J.E. Kim, Constraints on very light axions from cavity experiments, Phys. Rev. D 58 (1998) 055006 [hep-ph/9802220] [INSPIRE].

  30. L. Di Luzio, F. Mescia and E. Nardi, Redefining the Axion Window, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 (2017) 031801 [arXiv:1610.07593] [INSPIRE].

  31. L. Di Luzio, F. Mescia and E. Nardi, Window for preferred axion models, Phys. Rev. D 96 (2017) 075003 [arXiv:1705.05370] [INSPIRE].

  32. M. Farina, D. Pappadopulo, F. Rompineve and A. Tesi, The photo-philic QCD axion, JHEP 01 (2017) 095 [arXiv:1611.09855] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. K. Choi and S.H. Im, Realizing the relaxion from multiple axions and its UV completion with high scale supersymmetry, JHEP 01 (2016) 149 [arXiv:1511.00132] [INSPIRE].

  34. D.E. Kaplan and R. Rattazzi, Large field excursions and approximate discrete symmetries from a clockwork axion, Phys. Rev. D 93 (2016) 085007 [arXiv:1511.01827] [INSPIRE].

  35. G. Dvali, Black Holes and Large-N Species Solution to the Hierarchy Problem, Fortsch. Phys. 58 (2010) 528 [arXiv:0706.2050] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  36. K. Choi, H. Kim and S. Yun, Natural inflation with multiple sub-Planckian axions, Phys. Rev. D 90 (2014) 023545 [arXiv:1404.6209] [INSPIRE].

  37. J.E. Kim, H.P. Nilles and M. Peloso, Completing natural inflation, JCAP 01 (2005) 005 [hep-ph/0409138] [INSPIRE].

  38. P. Agrawal, G. Marques-Tavares and W. Xue, Opening up the QCD axion window, arXiv:1708.05008 [INSPIRE].

  39. R. Coy, M. Frigerio and M. Ibe, Dynamical Clockwork Axions, JHEP 10 (2017) 002 [arXiv:1706.04529] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. L.E. Ibanez and A.M. Uranga, String theory and particle physics: An introduction to string phenomenology, Cambridge University Press (2012) [INSPIRE].

  41. T. Higaki, K.S. Jeong, N. Kitajima and F. Takahashi, The QCD Axion from Aligned Axions and Diphoton Excess, Phys. Lett. B 755 (2016) 13 [arXiv:1512.05295] [INSPIRE].

  42. T. Higaki, K.S. Jeong, N. Kitajima and F. Takahashi, Quality of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry in the Aligned QCD Axion and Cosmological Implications, JHEP 06 (2016) 150 [arXiv:1603.02090] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. S.H.H. Tye and S.S.C. Wong, Helical Inflation and Cosmic Strings, arXiv:1404.6988 [INSPIRE].

  44. R. Kappl, S. Krippendorf and H.P. Nilles, Aligned Natural Inflation: Monodromies of two Axions, Phys. Lett. B 737 (2014) 124 [arXiv:1404.7127] [INSPIRE].

  45. I. Ben-Dayan, F.G. Pedro and A. Westphal, Hierarchical Axion Inflation, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (2014) 261301 [arXiv:1404.7773] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Y. Bai and B.A. Stefanek, Natural millicharged inflation, Phys. Rev. D 91 (2015) 096012 [arXiv:1405.6720] [INSPIRE].

  47. A. de la Fuente, P. Saraswat and R. Sundrum, Natural Inflation and Quantum Gravity, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 151303 [arXiv:1412.3457] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. P. Sikivie, Of Axions, Domain Walls and the Early Universe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48 (1982) 1156 [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. L.F. Abbott and M.B. Wise, Wormholes and Global Symmetries, Nucl. Phys. B 325 (1989) 687 [INSPIRE].

  50. S.R. Coleman and K.-M. Lee, Wormholes made without massless matter fields, Nucl. Phys. B 329 (1990) 387 [INSPIRE].

  51. M. Kamionkowski and J. March-Russell, Planck scale physics and the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, Phys. Lett. B 282 (1992) 137 [hep-th/9202003] [INSPIRE].

  52. R. Kallosh, A.D. Linde, D.A. Linde and L. Susskind, Gravity and global symmetries, Phys. Rev. D 52 (1995) 912 [hep-th/9502069] [INSPIRE].

  53. T. Banks and N. Seiberg, Symmetries and Strings in Field Theory and Gravity, Phys. Rev. D 83 (2011) 084019 [arXiv:1011.5120] [INSPIRE].

  54. R. Alonso and A. Urbano, Wormholes and masses for Goldstone bosons, arXiv:1706.07415 [INSPIRE].

  55. K.S. Babu, S.M. Barr and D. Seckel, Axion dissipation through the mixing of Goldstone bosons, Phys. Lett. B 336 (1994) 213 [hep-ph/9406308] [INSPIRE].

  56. T. Higaki, N. Kitajima and F. Takahashi, Hidden axion dark matter decaying through mixing with QCD axion and the 3.5 keV X-ray line, JCAP 12 (2014) 004 [arXiv:1408.3936] [INSPIRE].

  57. B. Holdom, Two U(1)’s and Epsilon Charge Shifts, Phys. Lett. B 166 (1986) 196 [INSPIRE].

  58. M. Cicoli, M. Goodsell and A. Ringwald, The type IIB string axiverse and its low-energy phenomenology, JHEP 10 (2012) 146 [arXiv:1206.0819] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. G. Shiu, W. Staessens and F. Ye, Widening the Axion Window via Kinetic and Stückelberg Mixings, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2015) 181601 [arXiv:1503.01015] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. G. Shiu, W. Staessens and F. Ye, Large Field Inflation from Axion Mixing, JHEP 06 (2015) 026 [arXiv:1503.02965] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. T.C. Bachlechner, M. Dias, J. Frazer and L. McAllister, Chaotic inflation with kinetic alignment of axion fields, Phys. Rev. D 91 (2015) 023520 [arXiv:1404.7496] [INSPIRE].

  62. T.C. Bachlechner, C. Long and L. McAllister, Planckian Axions in String Theory, JHEP 12 (2015) 042 [arXiv:1412.1093] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  63. T.C. Bachlechner, K. Eckerle, O. Janssen and M. Kleban, Axions of Evil, arXiv:1703.00453 [INSPIRE].

  64. T.C. Bachlechner, K. Eckerle, O. Janssen and M. Kleban, Systematics of Aligned Axions, JHEP 11 (2017) 036 [arXiv:1709.01080] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. T. Rudelius, On the Possibility of Large Axion Moduli Spaces, JCAP 04 (2015) 049 [arXiv:1409.5793] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. T.C. Bachlechner, C. Long and L. McAllister, Planckian Axions and the Weak Gravity Conjecture, JHEP 01 (2016) 091 [arXiv:1503.07853] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. M. Montero, A.M. Uranga and I. Valenzuela, Transplanckian axions!?, JHEP 08 (2015) 032 [arXiv:1503.03886] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. J. Brown, W. Cottrell, G. Shiu and P. Soler, On Axionic Field Ranges, Loopholes and the Weak Gravity Conjecture, JHEP 04 (2016) 017 [arXiv:1504.00659] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  69. D. Junghans, Large-Field Inflation with Multiple Axions and the Weak Gravity Conjecture, JHEP 02 (2016) 128 [arXiv:1504.03566] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. B. Heidenreich, M. Reece and T. Rudelius, Weak Gravity Strongly Constrains Large-Field Axion Inflation, JHEP 12 (2015) 108 [arXiv:1506.03447] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  71. D. Cadamuro and J. Redondo, Cosmological bounds on pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, JCAP 02 (2012) 032 [arXiv:1110.2895] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. CAST collaboration, V. Anastassopoulos et al., New CAST Limit on the Axion-Photon Interaction, Nature Phys. 13 (2017) 584 [arXiv:1705.02290] [INSPIRE].

  73. S. De Panfilis et al., Limits on the Abundance and Coupling of Cosmic Axions at 4.5 < m a < 5.0 μeV, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59 (1987) 839 [INSPIRE].

  74. W. Wuensch et al., Results of a Laboratory Search for Cosmic Axions and Other Weakly Coupled Light Particles, Phys. Rev. D 40 (1989) 3153 [INSPIRE].

  75. C. Hagmann, P. Sikivie, N.S. Sullivan and D.B. Tanner, Results from a search for cosmic axions, Phys. Rev. D 42 (1990) 1297 [INSPIRE].

  76. B.M. Brubaker et al., First results from a microwave cavity axion search at 24 μeV, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 (2017) 061302 [arXiv:1610.02580] [INSPIRE].

  77. A. Payez, C. Evoli, T. Fischer, M. Giannotti, A. Mirizzi and A. Ringwald, Revisiting the SN1987A gamma-ray limit on ultralight axion-like particles, JCAP 02 (2015) 006 [arXiv:1410.3747] [INSPIRE].

  78. M. Berg et al., Constraints on Axion-Like Particles from X-ray Observations of NGC1275, Astrophys. J. 847 (2017) 101 [arXiv:1605.01043] [INSPIRE].

  79. M.C.D. Marsh, H.R. Russell, A.C. Fabian, B.P. McNamara, P. Nulsen and C.S. Reynolds, A New Bound on Axion-Like Particles, JCAP 12 (2017) 036 [arXiv:1703.07354] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. J.P. Conlon, F. Day, N. Jennings, S. Krippendorf and M. Rummel, Constraints on Axion-Like Particles from Non-Observation of Spectral Modulations for X-ray Point Sources, JCAP 07 (2017) 005 [arXiv:1704.05256] [INSPIRE].

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. A. Arvanitaki, M. Baryakhtar and X. Huang, Discovering the QCD Axion with Black Holes and Gravitational Waves, Phys. Rev. D 91 (2015) 084011 [arXiv:1411.2263] [INSPIRE].

  82. H.E.S.S. collaboration, A. Abramowski et al., Constraints on axionlike particles with H.E.S.S. from the irregularity of the PKS 2155-304 energy spectrum, Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013) 102003 [arXiv:1311.3148] [INSPIRE].

  83. Fermi-LAT collaboration, M. Ajello et al., Search for Spectral Irregularities due to Photon-Axionlike-Particle Oscillations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (2016) 161101 [arXiv:1603.06978] [INSPIRE].

  84. T.M. Shokair et al., Future Directions in the Microwave Cavity Search for Dark Matter Axions, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 29 (2014) 1443004 [arXiv:1405.3685] [INSPIRE].

  85. R. Bähre et al., Any light particle search II — Technical Design Report, 2013 JINST 8 T09001 [arXiv:1302.5647] [INSPIRE].

  86. J.K. Vogel et al., IAXO — The International Axion Observatory, in 8th Patras Workshop on Axions, WIMPs and WISPs (AXION-WIMP 2012), Chicago, Illinois, 18-22 July 2012 [arXiv:1302.3273] [http://lss.fnal.gov/archive/2013/pub/fermilab-pub-13-699-a.pdf].

  87. A. Garcon et al., The Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiment (CASPEr): a dark-matter search with nuclear magnetic resonance, arXiv:1707.05312 [INSPIRE].

  88. M.E. Machacek and M.T. Vaughn, Two Loop Renormalization Group Equations in a General Quantum Field Theory. 1. Wave Function Renormalization, Nucl. Phys. B 222 (1983) 83 [INSPIRE].

Download references

Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits any use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Prateek Agrawal.

Additional information

ArXiv ePrint: 1709.06085

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Agrawal, P., Fan, J., Reece, M. et al. Experimental targets for photon couplings of the QCD axion. J. High Energ. Phys. 2018, 6 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2018)006

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2018)006

Keywords

  • Beyond Standard Model
  • Nonperturbative Effects