Advertisement

Journal of Rubber Research

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 119–134 | Cite as

The Colloidal Properties of Commercial Natural Rubber Latex Concentrates

  • Manroshan SinghEmail author
Article
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

Commercial high ammonia (HA-NRL), low ammonia (LA-NRL), deproteinised (DP-NRL) and prevulcanised (PV-NRL) natural rubber latex concentrates were characterised for their colloidal properties using particle size and distribution analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), zeta potential analysis and rheology measurements. Particle size analysis showed HA-NRL, LA-NRL and PV-NRL to have bimodal distributions whereas DP-NRL showed a unimodal distribution. SEM showed HA-NRL, LA-NRL and PVNRL particles to be spherical whereas DP-NRL particles were made up of a mixture of spherical and pear-like shapes. Furthermore, HA-NRL, LA-NRL and DP-NRL particles were deformed and fused together unlike PV-NRL particles which retained their spherical shape. The zeta potential results indicate that all four latex concentrates follow a similar trend to the results obtained by previous researchers. Rheological studies were divided into steady state and oscillatory measurements. Shear thinning behaviour was observed for all four latex concentrates and fittings to the linearised Dougherty-Krieger equation showed HA-NRL, LA-NRL, DP-NRL and PV-NRL to have ø of 0. 787, 0.810, 0. 790 and 0.803 which corresponded to latex concentrations of 76.9 wt%, 79.2 wt%, 77.2 wt% and 78.4 wt%, respectively. Oscillatory measurements at a frequency of I Hz and ø = 0.62 gave tan c5 values of 1.28, 0.52, 0.96 and 1.41, respectively for HA-NRL, LA-NRL, DP-NRL and PV-NRL indicating a dominant viscous behaviour in HA-NRL and PV-NRL while LA-NRL and DP-NRL showed dominant elastic behaviour. A shift from dominant elastic to viscous behaviour for LA-NRL and DP-NRL was observed to occur at ø of ≈0.595 and 0.60, respectively.

Keywords

natural rubber latex colloids particle size zeta potential rheology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    BOWERS, J. E. (1990) Natural Rubber Producing Plants for the United States. USDA, Cooperative State Research Service and National Agricultural Library. Beltsville, Maryland: NAL.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    VAN BEILEN, J.B. AND POIRIER, Y. (2007) Establishment of New Crops for the Production of Nat. Rub. Trends Biotechnol., 25(11), 522–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    VAN BEILEN, J.B. AND POIRIER, Y. (2007) Guayule and Russian Dandelion as Alternative Sources of Nat. Rubb. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 27(4), 217–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    CORNISH, K. (1996) Hypoallergenic Natural Rubber Products from Parthenum argentatum (Gray) and Other Non — Hevea brasiliensis Species. US Patent 5,580,942.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Natural Rubber Statistics 2017, January — March, Credible Rubber Pricing Systems (CRSP), Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Rubber Board.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    LI, G.Y., WANG, Q.B., LI, T.Y., ZHOU, S.X. AND YU, H.Y. (2014) A Review oflnfluencing Factors on Latex Yield of Hevea brasiliensis. Chinese J. Ecol., 33(2), 510–517.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    NUTTER, A.F. (1979) Contact Urticaria to Rubber. Br. J. Dermatol., 101, 597–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    ICHIKAWA, N, MIYAMOTO AND Y, HAYASHI, M (2004) Low Allergenic Natural Rubber and Method of Preparing Low Allergenic Natural Rubber Latex, US Patent 6,784,281.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    GEORGE, K.M., RAJAMMAL, G, AMMA, G, MATHEW, N.M. (2007) Preparation and Properties of Low Protein NR Latex Using Stabilised Liquid Papain. J. Rubb. Res., 10(3), 131–142.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    MANROSHAN, S, MUSTAFA, A, MOK, K.L., KAWAHARA, S, AMIR - HASHIM M.Y. AND BOOTEN, K. (2009) Comparison between Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Polyfructose Surfactant Systems in Urea Deproteinisation of Natural Rubber Latex. J. Rubb. Res., 12(1), 1–11.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    SUBRAMANIAM, A, YIP, E, NG, K.P. AND MOK, K.L. (1993) Extractable Protein Content of Gloves from Prevulcanised Natural Rubber Latex. In: Proc. Int. Rubb. Technol. Conf. and Workshop on Latex Proteins, Kuala Lumpur 1993, 76–80.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    ENG, A.H., KODAMA AND S, KAWASAKI, H. (1999) Reduction of Water Extractable Proteins in Natural Rubber Latex Films by Ultrasonic Leaching System. J. Rubb. Res. 2(1), 23–28.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    YIP, E AND CACIOLI, P. (2002) The Manufacture of Gloves from Natural Rubber Latex. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 110(2), S3–S14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    CHEN, S.F. (1988) Types, Composition, Properties, Storage and Handling of Natural Rubber Latex Concentrate. In: FOO, K.Y. AND CHUAH, P.G. (Eds) Notes on NR Examination Glove Manufacture, Kuala Lumpur: RRIM, 1988, p.1–12.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    BLACKLEY, D.C. (1997) Polymer Latices Science and Technology, Vol.2, Types of Latices. London: Chapman and Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    LOWE, J.S. (1960) The Substrate for V.F.A. Formation in Natural Rubber Latex. 1.R.1, Trans, 36(4), 202.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    NAYAK, P.L. AND BASAK, A. (1986) Graft Copolymerisation onto Natural Rubber. XV. Graft Copolymerisation of Methyl Methacrylate onto Natural Rubber Using a Potassium Permanganate — Ascorbic Acid Redox System. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 32, 4271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    GELLING, I.R. (1988) Chemistry, Structure and Properties of Epoxidised Natural Rubber. In: Proc. Int. Rubb. Tech. Conf, Penang, 17 — 19 Oct. 1988. 415–427.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    HENDRICKS, S.B., WILDMAN, S.G. AND JONES, E.J. (1946). Differentiation of Rubber and Gutta Hydrocarbons in Plant Materials. Rubber Chem. Technol., 19, 501–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    HUNTER, R.J. (1981). Zeta Potential in Colloid Science: Principles and Applications. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    ONG, C.W. AND SHAMSUL BAHRI, A.R. (2016). Rubber Particles: Size, Molecular Weight and Their Distributions Detected in Wild Hevea Species. J. Biol. Agri. Healthcare, 6(10), 98–103.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    MANROSHAN, S., ESQUENA J., SOLANS, C., BOOTEN, K. AND TADROS, TH. F. (2014) Influence of Hydrophobically Modified Inulin (INUTEC NRA) on the Stability of Vulcanised Natural Rubber Latex, Colloids Surf, A, 451, 90–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    HO, C.C. AND KHEW, M.C. (1999). Surface Morphology of Prevulcanised Natural Rubber Films by Atomic Force Microscopy: New Insight into the Prevulcanisation Mechanism. Langmuir, 15(19), 6208–6219).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    HO, C.C. (1988) The Effect of Metallic Cations on the Electrophoretic Properties of a Pretreated Hevea Latex. Colloid. Polym. Sci., 266(1), 70–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    TADROS, TH. F. (2010) Rheology of Dispersions: Principles and Applications. Weinheim: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Malaysian Rubber Board 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rubber Research Institute of MalaysiaMalaysian Rubber BoardSelangorMalaysia

Personalised recommendations