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The CYRM-12: A Brief Measure of Resilience

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: This article details the reduction of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM) from a 28-item to a 12-item measure. The CYRM-28 is a measure of youth resilience that accounts for cultural and contextual diversity across youth populations. A reduced version of the CYRM is better suited to inclusion in omnibus surveys.

METHODS: Data from two samples of youth from Atlantic Canada are included in the analysis: a) a sample of multiple-service-using youth (n=122; mean age = 18); b) a school-based sample of youth (n=1494; mean age = 15).

RESULTS: Three iterations of an Exploratory Factor Analysis were conducted on data from the first sample of youth to identify items for inclusion in the CYRM-12. In the third analysis, a varimax rotated factor analysis of the 12 items resulted in a four-factor solution, with 10 of the items loading well. Reliability of this grouping of questions is satisfactory (α=0.754). Confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted on the second sample of youth. A satisfactory fit was obtained (χ2 (51, N=1540) = 255.419, p=0.0001; Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index = 0.960; Comparative Fit Index = 0.957; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.050). Cronbach’s Alpha for the 12 items was also satisfactory (α=0.840).

CONCLUSION: Results show sufficient content validity of the CYRM-12 to merit its use as a screener for resilience processes in the lives of adolescents.

Résumé

OBJECTIFS: Cet article traite de la réduction de l’indicateur CYRM (Child and Youth Resilience Measure) de 28 à 12 éléments. Le CYRM-28 est un indicateur de la résilience des jeunes qui tient compte de la diversité culturelle et contextuelle dans les populations de jeunes. La version réduite du CYRM est plus susceptible d’être incluse dans les enquêtes omnibus.

MÉTHODE: Notre analyse englobe les données de deux échantillons de jeunes du Canada atlantique: a) un échantillon de jeunes utilisant plusieurs services (n=122; âge moyen = 18 ans) et b) un échantillon de jeunes en milieu scolaire (n=1 494; âge moyen = 15 ans).

RÉSULTATS: Trois itérations d’une analyse factorielle exploratoire ont été menées sur les données du premier échantillon de jeunes afin de repérer les éléments à inclure dans le CYRM-12. La troisième, une analyse factorielle des 12 éléments avec rotation Varimax, a donné une solution à quatre facteurs avec 10 éléments se chargeant bien. La fiabilité de ce groupe de questions est satisfaisante (α=0,754). Nous avons ensuite mené une analyse factorielle confirmatoire sur le second échantillon de jeunes. Nous avons obtenu un ajustement satisfaisant (χ2 (51, N=1 540) = 255,419, p=0,0001; Indice de qualité de l’ajustement = 0,960; Indice comparatif d’ajustement = 0,957; Erreur moyenne quadratique d’approximation = 0,050). Le coefficient alpha de Cronbach pour les 12 éléments était également satisfaisant (α=0,840).

CONCLUSION: Les résultats font état d’une validité de contenu suffisante pour que le CYRM-12 soit utilisé comme « crible » des processus de résilience dans la vie des adolescents.

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Correspondence to Linda Liebenberg PhD.

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Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Public Safety Canada’s National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC) and the Department of Health of Nova Scotia.

Conflict of Interest: None to declare.

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Liebenberg, L., Ungar, M. & LeBlanc, J.C. The CYRM-12: A Brief Measure of Resilience. Can J Public Health 104, e131–e135 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03405676

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Key Words

  • Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM)
  • adolescents
  • adversity
  • validity
  • risk
  • positive development

Mots Clés

  • Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM)
  • adolescent
  • adversité
  • validité
  • risque
  • développement positif