The Psychological Record

, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 3–15 | Cite as

The Expansion of Equivalence Classes Through Simple Discrimination Training and Fading

  • Lanny Fields
  • Sandra Newman
  • Barbara J. Adams
  • Thom Verhave
Article

Abstract

AB, BC, CD, and DE were established by conditional discrimination training. Symmetry, transitivity, and equivalence tests were then passed demonstrating the formation of 5-member equivalence classes. These tests were passed even though they were conducted in the absence of baseline relations. A new stimulus (F) was then linked to a class member (A) by stimulus fading conducted in the context of simple discrimination training. Thereafter, subjects passed FB, FC, FD, FE, BF, CF, DF, and EF tests, demonstrating that F functioned as a new member of the A-E class. The expansion of equivalence classes can also be accomplished by the use of simple discrimination training combined with stimulus fading, in addition to the typical use of conditional discrimination training. Equivalence classes, then, can be defined independently of conditional discrimination procedures.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. DEVANY, J. M., HAYES, S. C., & NELSON, R. O. (1986). Equivalence class formation in language-able and language disabled children. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 46, 243–257.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. ETZEL, B. C., & LEBLANC, J. M. (1979). The simplest treatment alternative: The law of parsimony applied to choosing appropriate instructional control and errorless-learning procedures for the difficult-to-teach child. Kansas Research Institute for the Early Childhood Education of the Handicapped (Eci Document No. 131). Lawrence Ks.Google Scholar
  3. FIELDS, L. (1978). Fading and errorless transfer in successive discriminations. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 30, 123–128.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. FIELDS, L. (1979). Acquisition of stimulus control while introducing new stimuli in fading. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 32, 121–127.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. FIELDS, L. (1981). Early and late introduction of probes and stimulus control acquisition in fading. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 36, 363–370.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. FIELDS, L. (1985). Reinforcement of probe responses and acquisition of stimulus control in fading procedures. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43, 235–241.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. FIELDS, L. (1989). Equivalence class formation; a paradigm for the analysis of complex human behavior. A keynote address presented at the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Easter Conference, Cambridge University, England, April 11-13.Google Scholar
  8. FIELDS, L., ADAMS, B. J., VERHAVE, T., & NEWMAN, S. (1990). The effects of nodality on the formation of equivalence classes. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 53, 345–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. FIELDS, L., BRUNO, V., & KELLER, K. (1976). The stages of acquisition in stimulus fading. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 26, 295–300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. FIELDS, L., REEVE, K., ADAMS, B. J., & VERHAVE, T. (1991). Stimulus generalization and equivalence classes: A model for natural categories. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 55, 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. FIELDS, L., & VERHAVE, T. (1987). The structure of equivalence classes. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 49, 317–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. KAMIN, L. J. (1968). “Attention-like” processes in classical conditioning. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Miami symposium on the prediction of behavior: Aversive stimulation (pp. 9–31). Miami, Fl: University of Miami.Google Scholar
  13. KARPICKE, J., & HEARST, E. (1975). Inhibitory control and errorless discrimination learning. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 23, 158–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. MCILVANE, W. J., BASS, R. W., O’BRIEN, J. M., GEROVAC, B. J., & STODDARD, L. T. (1984). Spoken and signed naming of foods after receptive exclusion training in severe retardation. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 5, 1–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. RAY, B. A., & SIDMAN, M. (1970). Reinforcement schedules and stimulus control. In W. N. Schoenfeld & J. Farmer (Eds.), Theory of reinforcement schedules (pp. 187–218). New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  16. SAUNDERS, R. R., SAUNDERS, K. J., KIRBY, K. C., & SPRADLIN, J. E. (1988). The merger and development of equivalence classes by unreinforced conditional selection of comparison stimuli. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 50, 145–162.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. SAUNDERS, R. R., WACHTER, J. A., & SPRADLIN, J. E. (1988). Establishing auditory stimulus control over an eight-member stimulus class via conditional discrimination procedures. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 49, 95–115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. SCHILMOELLER, G. L., SCHILMOELLER, K. J., ETZEL, B. C., & LEBLANC, J. M. (1979). Conditional discrimination after errorless and trial-and error training. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 31, 405–420.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. SCHREIBMAN, L. (1975). Effects of within-stimulus and extra-stimulus prompting on discrimination learning with autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 91–112.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. SIDMAN, M. (1971). Reading and auditory-visual equivalences. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 14, 5–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. SIDMAN, M. (1990) Equivalence relations: Where do they come from? In H. Lejuene & D. Blackman (Eds.), Behavior analysis in theory and practice: Contributions and controversies (pp. 93–114). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  22. SIDMAN, M., KIRK, B., & WILLSON-MORRIS, M. (1985). Six-member stimulus classes generated by conditional-discrimination procedures. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37, 5–22. (43, 21-42).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. SIDMAN, M., & STODDARD, L. T., (1967). The effectiveness of fading in programing simultaneous form discrimination for retarded children. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 10, 3–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. SIDMAN, M., WYNNE, C. K., MAGUIRE, R. W., & BARNES, T. (1989). Functional classes and equivalence relations. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 52, 261–274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. SINGH, N. N., & SOLMAN, R. (1991). A stimulus control analysis of the picture- word problem in children who are mentally retarded: The blocking effect. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 525–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. SPRADLIN, J. E., & SAUNDERS, R. R. (1986). The development of stimulus classes using match-to-sample procedures: Sample classification versus comparison classification. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 6, 41–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. SUTHERLAND, N. S., & MACKINTOSH, N. J. (1971). Mechanisms of discrimination learning. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  28. TERRACE, H. S. (1963). Errorless transfer of a discrimination across two continua. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6, 223–232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. TOUCHETTE, P. E. (1971). Transfer of stimulus control: Measuring the moment of transfer. The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 15, 347–354.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. VOM SAAL, W., & JENKINS, H. M. (1970). Blocking the development of stimulus control. Learning and Motivation, 1, 52–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Behavior Analysis International 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lanny Fields
    • 1
  • Sandra Newman
    • 2
  • Barbara J. Adams
    • 2
  • Thom Verhave
    • 2
  1. 1.The College of Staten Island/CUNY and The Graduate Center/CUNYStaten IslandUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyQueens College/CUNY and The Graduate Center/CUNYFlushingUSA

Personalised recommendations