In two studies undergraduate students were given an original paragraph and several rewritten versions of the paragraph, some of which were plagiarized (e.g., without a citation, superficially modified from the original) and some correctly paraphrased. Students were asked to determine whether each rewritten version had been plagiarized or correctly paraphrased. Approximately 74% of the students in both studies correctly identified the paraphrased versions. However, some of the plagiarized versions were misidentified as having been correctly paraphrased by as many as 40% to 50% of the students. Results suggest that students are often unclear as to what constitutes plagiarism and correct forms of paraphrasing.
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Roig, M. Can undergraduate students determine whether text has been plagiarized?. Psychol Rec 47, 113–122 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395215