Advertisement

The Analysis of Verbal Behavior

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 137–155 | Cite as

Language Generativity, Response Generalization, and Derived Relational Responding

Conceptual Article

Abstract

Language generativity can be described as the ability to produce sentences never before said, and to understand sentences never before heard. One process often cited as underlying language generativity is response generalization. However, though the latter seems to promise a technical understanding of the former at a process level, an investigation of definitions and approaches to the term “response generalization” that appear in the literature suggests that it does not do so. We argue that a more promising candidate for the role of key process underlying language generativity is derived relational responding. We introduce the latter concept and describe empirical research showing its connection with language. We subsequently present a relational frame theory (RFT) conceptualization of derived relations as contextually controlled generalized relational responding. We then review a series of recent studies on derived manding in developmentally delayed children and adults that arguably demonstrate the applied utility of a derived relations-based approach with respect to the phenomenon of generative language.

Key words

language generativity response generalization derived relational responding relational frame theory manding 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alessi, G. (1987). Generative strategies and teaching for generalization. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 5, 15–27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Austin, J., & Wilson, K. G. (2002). Response-Response relationships in organizational behavior management. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 21(4), 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnes, D. (1994). Stimulus equivalence and relational frame theory. The Psychological Record, 44, 91–124.Google Scholar
  4. Barnes, D., Browne, M., Smeets, P., & Roche, B. (1995). A transfer of functions and a conditional transfer of functions through equivalence relations in three to six year old children. The Psychological Record, 45, 405–430.Google Scholar
  5. Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Smeets, P. M. (2004). Establishing relational responding in accordance with opposite as generalized operant behavior in young children. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 4(3), 559–586.Google Scholar
  6. Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., Smeets, P. M., Strand, P., & Friman, P. (2004). Establishing relational responding in accordance with more-than and lessthan as generalized operant behavior in young children. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 4(3), 531–558.Google Scholar
  7. Berens, N. M., & Hayes, S. C. (2007). Arbitrarily applicable comparative relations: Experimental evidence for a relational operant. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(1), 45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Carpentier, F., Smeets, P., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2003). Equivalence-equivalence as a model of analogy: Further analyses. Psychological Record, 53(3), 349–371.Google Scholar
  9. Carr, E. G. (1988). Functional equivalence as a mechanism of response generalization. In R. H. Horner & R. L. Koegel (Eds.), Generalization and maintenance: Lifestyle changes in applied settings. Baltimore, MD: P. H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  10. Catania, A. C. (2006). Learning Interim 4th Ed.). Sloan Publishing.Google Scholar
  11. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. I. (1987). Applied Behavior Analysis 1st Ed.). New York, NY: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. I. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd Ed.). New York, NY: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  13. Devany, J. M., Hayes, S. C., & Nelson, R. O. (1986). Equivalence class formation in language-able and language-disabled children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of behavior, 46(3), 243–257.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Drabman, R. S., Hammer, D., & Rosenbaum, M. S. (1979). Assessing generalization in behavior modification with children: The generalization map. Behavioral Assessment, 1, 203–219.Google Scholar
  15. Dymond, S., May, R. J., Munnelly, A., & Hoon, A. E. (2010). Evaluating the evidence base for relational frame theory: A citation analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 33, 97–117.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Dymond, S., and Roche, B. (in press). Advances in relational frame theory & contextual behavioral science: Research & application. New York, NY: New Harbinger.Google Scholar
  17. Dymond, S., Roche, B., Forsyth, J., Whelan, R., & Rhoden, J. (2007). Transformation of avoidance response functions in accordance with same and opposite relational frames. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 88(2), 249–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldsmith, T. R., LeBlanc, L. A., & Sautter, R. A. (2007). Teaching intraverbal behavior to children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greer, R. D. (2008). The ontogenetic selection of verbal capabilities: Contributions of Skinner’s verbal behavior theory to a more comprehensive understanding of language. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 8(3), 363–386.Google Scholar
  20. Greer, R. D., & Ross, D. E. (2008). Verbal behavior analysis: Inducing and expanding new verbal capabilities in children with language delays. New York, NY: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  21. Halvey, C., & Rehfeldt, R. A. (2005). Expanding vocal requesting repertoires via relational responding in adults with severe developmental disabilities. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 21, 13–25.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Hayes, S. C., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Roche, B. (2001). Relational frame theory: A postskinnerian account of human language and cognition. New York, NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  23. Hayes, S. C., Fox, E., Gifford, E.V., Wilson, K. G., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Healy, O. (2001). Derived relational responding as learned behavior. In S. C. Hayes, D. Barnes-Holmes, & B. Roche (Eds.) Relational frame theory: A post-Skinnerian account of human language & cognition. New York, NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hayes, S. C., Gifford, E. V., Townsend, R. C., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2001). Thinking, problem solving and pragmatic verbal analysis. In S. C. Hayes, D. Barnes-Holmes, & B. Roche (Eds.). Relational frame theory: A post-skinnerian account of human language and cognition. New York, NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  25. Horne, P. J., & Lowe, C. F. (1996). On the origins of naming and other symbolic behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of behavior, 65(1), 185–241.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Kazdin, A. E. (1994). Behavior modification in applied settings (5th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks-Cole.Google Scholar
  27. Kelley, M. E., Shillingsburg, M. A., Castro, M. J., Addison, L. R., & LaRue Jr., R. H. (2007). Further evaluation of emerging speech in children with developmental disabilities: Training verbal behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(3), 431–445.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Koegel, L. K., Camarata, S. M., Valdez-Menchaca, M. C., & Koegel, R. L. (1998). Teaching children with autism to use selfinitiated strategy to learn expressive vocabulary. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 102, 346–357.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lord, C., & McGee, J. P. (Eds.). (2001). Educating Children With Autism. Committee on Educational Interventions for Children With Autism, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  30. Lovaas, O. I. (1981). Teaching developmentally disabled children: The me book. Baltimore, MD: University Park.Google Scholar
  31. Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 3–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Lovaas, O. I. (2003). Teaching individuals with developmental delays: Basic intervention techniques. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
  33. Lowenkron, B. (1998). Some logical functions of joint control. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of behavior, 69(3), 327–354.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Malott, R. W. (2003). Behavior analysis and linguistic productivity. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 19, 11–18.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Martin, G., & Pear, J. (2011). Behavior modification: What it is and how to do it. (9th ed.). NJ: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  36. Mayer, G. R., Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Wallace, M. (2011). Behavior analysis for lasting change. Cornwall-on-Hudson, NY: Sloan Educational Publishing.Google Scholar
  37. McEachin, J. J., Smith, T., & Lovaas, O. I. (1993). Long-term outcome for children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment. American Journal of Mental Retardation. 97(4), 359–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. McHugh, L., Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Stewart, I. (2006). Understanding false belief as generalized operant behaviour. Psychological Record, 56(3), 341–364.Google Scholar
  39. Moran, L., Stewart, I., McElwee, J., & Ming, S. (2010). Brief report: The training and assessment of relational precursors and abilities (TARPA): A preliminary analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(9), 1149–1153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Murphy, C., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2009). Derived more-less relational mands in children diagnosed with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42, 253–268.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Murphy, C., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2010a). Establishing five derived mands in three adolescent boys with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 537–541.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Murphy, C., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2010b). Establishing complex derived manding with children with and without a diagnosis of autism. The Psychological Record, 60, 489–504.Google Scholar
  43. Murphy, C., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Barnes-Holmes, Y. (2005). Derived manding in children with autism: synthesising Skinner’s Verbal Behavior with relational frame theory. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 445–462.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Noell, G. H., Connell, J. E., & Duhon, G. J. (2006). Spontaneous response generalization during whole word instruction: Reading to spell and spelling to read. Journal of Behavioral Education, 15(3), 12–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. O’Hora, D., Barnes-Holmes, D., Roche, B., & Smeets, P. (2004). Derived relational networks and control by novel instructions: A possible model of generative verbal responding. Psychological Record 54(3), 437–460.Google Scholar
  46. O’Hora, D., Pelaez, M., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2005). Derived relational responding and performance on verbal subtests of the WAIS-III. Psychological Record 55(1), 155–175.Google Scholar
  47. Palmer, D. C. (2004). Data in search of a principle: A review of relational frame theory: A post-Skinnerian account of human language and cognition. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 81(2), 189–204.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Partington, J. W., & Sundberg, M. L. (1998). The assessment of basic language and learning skills (the ABLLS): An assessment, curriculum guide, and skills tracking system for children with autism or other developmental disabilities. Pleasant Hill, CA: Behavior Analysts.Google Scholar
  49. Rehfeldt, R. A. (2011). Toward a technology of derived stimulus relations: An analysis of articles published in the journal of applied behavior analysis, 1992-2009. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(1), 109–119.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Rehfeldt, R. A., & Barnes-Holmes, Y. (2009). Derived relational responding applications for learners with autism and other developmental disabilities: A progressive guide to change. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
  51. Rehfeldt, R. A., Dillen, J. E., Ziomek, M. M., & Kowalchuk, R. K. (2007). Assessing relational learning deficits in perspectivetaking in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorder. Psychological Record, 57(1), 23–47.Google Scholar
  52. Rehfeldt, R. A., & Root, S. L. (2005). Establishing derived requesting skills in adults with severe developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 101–105.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Remington, B., Hastings, R., Kovshoff, H., degli Espinosa, F., Jahr, E., Brown, T., Alsford, P., Lemaic, M., & Ward, N. (2007). A field effectiveness study of early intensive behavioral intervention: Outcomes for children with autism and their parents after two years. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 112, 418–438.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Roche, B., & Barnes, D. (1997). A transformation of respondently conditioned stimulus function in accordance with arbitrarily applicable relations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of behavior, 67(3), 275–301.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Rosales, R., & Rehfeldt, R. A. (2007). Contriving transitive conditioned establishing operations to establish derived manding skills in adults with severe developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 105–121.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Sidman, M. (1971). Reading and auditoryvisual equivalences. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 14(1), 5–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Sidman, M. (1994). Equivalence relations and behavior: A research story. Boston MA: Authors Cooperative.Google Scholar
  58. Sidman, M. (2000). Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 74, 127–146.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York, NY: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  60. Steele, D., & Hayes, S. C. (1991). Stimulus equivalence and arbitrarily applicable relational responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 56(3), 519–555.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Stewart, I., Barnes-Holmes, D., Roche, B. & Smeets, P. (2004). A functional-analytic model of analogy using the relational evaluation procedure. Psychological Record 54(4), 531–552.Google Scholar
  62. Stewart, I., & McElwee, J. (2009). Relational responding and conditional discrimination procedures: An apparent inconsistency and clarification. The Behavior Analyst, 32, 309–317.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Suchowierska, M. (2006). Recombinative generalization: Some theoretical and practical remarks. International Journal of Psychology, 41(6), 514–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sundberg, M. L. (2008a). VB-MAPP: Verbal behavior milestones assessment and placement program—Guide. Concord, CA: AVB Press.Google Scholar
  65. Sundberg, M. L. (2008b). VB-MAPP: Verbal behavior milestones assessment and placement program—Protocol. Concord, CA: AVB Press.Google Scholar
  66. Sweeney-Kirwan, E. J. (2008, April). “Teaching Advanced Verbal Behavior.” Paper presented at a meeting of the Pennsylvania Verbal Behavior Project, Harrisburg, PA.Google Scholar
  67. Wesolowski, M. D., Zencius, A. H., McCarthy-Lydon, D., & Lydon, S. (2005). Using behavioral interventions to treat speech disorders in persons with head trauma. Behavioral Interventions, 20(1), 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Whelan, R., Cullinan, V., O’Donovan, A., & Rodriguez, M. (2005). Derived same and opposite relations produce association and mediated priming. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy 5(3), 247–264.Google Scholar
  69. Wilczynski, S. M., & Christian, L. (2008). The National Standards Project: Promoting evidence-based practice in autism spectrum disorders. In J. K. Luiselli, D. C. Russo, W. P. Christian, & S. M. Wilcyznski (Eds.), Effective Practices for Children with Autism: Educational and Behavior Support Interventions that Work (. 37–60). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Williams, B. F., & Williams, R. L. (2010). Effective programs for treating autism spectrum disorders: Applied behavior analysis models. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Wulfert, E., & Hayes, S. C. (1988). Transfer of a conditional ordering response through conditional equivalence classes. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of behavior, 50(2), 125–144.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Behavior Analysis International 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyNational University of IrelandGalwayIreland
  2. 2.USA
  3. 3.USA

Personalised recommendations